Doukhobor Genealogy Website  

 

Guide to Doukhobor Census Records

 

by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff

 

There is probably no other single group of records in existence which contain more information about our Doukhobor ancestors than census records. Censuses are an official government count and description of the people of an area and contain valuable genealogical data. Doukhobors have been enumerated in a variety of censuses, taken for a variety of purposes, including taxation, electoral representation, homestead entry and exemption from military service. The following guide describes Doukhobor census records in Canada and the United States in the 20th century - their historical background, dates, content, usefulness and reliability, and availability of original records and published indexes.


 

Canada Census

 

In accordance with The Census Act, the Government of Canada has taken a nationwide census of the population every ten years since 1871 (every five years since 1971). The purpose of the Canada Census is to determine population size and distribution, taxation, electoral representation, planning and resources. The first Canada census to include the Doukhobors is 1901. The most recent Canada census to be released to the public is 1911.

 

  1901   

 

Description

 

Fourth decennial census. Doukhobor population of 7,740. Census day of 31 March 1901. Enumeration was to be completed within thirty days. Census conducted by 8,800 census enumerators (Census Commission, Department of Agriculture). Census organized by province and within provinces by district and sub-district. Census lists the name, sex, color, relationship to head of household, marital status, date of birth, age at last birthday, place of birth, year of immigration, year of naturalization, nationality, religion, occupation, living on own means, employer, employee, working at trade in factory or home, months employed at trade, months employed at other profession, earnings for trade, extra earnings, months at school, ability to read, write and speak English, mother tongue and infirmities of each person. Census schedules are handwritten. Remarks: Doukhobor entries are found primarily in The Territories as well as Manitoba. The Doukhobor entries in this census are incomplete as 2,811 Doukhobors in 23 villages refused to be enumerated. Also, it contains duplicate entries for 1,021 Doukhobors in 9 villages; these villages were visited twice by census enumerators from adjoining sub-districts. 

 

Originals

 

Library and Archives Canada holds microfilm copies of the original 1901 Canada census. These microfilms may be obtained directly or through interlibrary loan. Many libraries, archives, genealogical societies and LDS Family History Centers in Canada also hold microfilm copies.  For an online Catalogue of Census Returns on Microfilm, visit the Library and Archives Canada website.  Online Digitized Copies of the original 1901 Canada census are also available on the Library and Archives Canada website. Note: this database is searchable geographically (by province, district and sub-district) but not nominally (by name). 

 

Indexes

 

The following indexes are relevant and useful for Doukhobors enumerated in the 1901 Canada census:

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Index of Doukhobor Settlements in the 1901 Canada Census. This online index provides a comprehensive listing of Doukhobor settlement (villages, work camps, homesteads, households, individuals, etc.) organized by province, district, sub-district, page and microfilm number. Use this geographic finding aid to locate Doukhobors in the microfilm copies or online images of the original 1901 Canada census.

  • Automated Genealogy - 1901 Canada Census Index.  This is a free, online index to every name enumerated in the 1901 Census of Canada with some personal data transcribed (name, sex, relationship to head of household, marital status, birth date and age) and links to Library and Archives Canada online digitized copies of the original census pages.

  • Alberta Genealogical Society, 1901 Census Index: Alberta and Saskatchewan. This is a free, online index to every name enumerated in districts 202-204 of the 1901 Canada census  with some personal data transcribed (name, age, place and date of birth, district, sub-district, page and microfilm number) and links to district maps and Library and Archives Canada online digitized copies of the original census pages. 

  • Alberta Genealogical Society, Index to the 1901 Census District of Assiniboia East No. 203 (Edmonton Branch, 2002). ISBN 1-55194-6-9. This book contains the name, relationship, place and date of birth, sub-district and page number for 44,000 individuals enumerated in the Assiniboia East census district No. 203.

  • Alberta Genealogical Society, Index to the 1901 Census District of Saskatchewan No. 205 (Edmonton Branch, 2002). ISBN 1-55194-6-9. This book contains the name, relationship, place and date of birth, sub-district and page number for 20,000 individuals enumerated in the Saskatchewan census district No. 205.

  • Ancestry.com - 1901 Canada Census Index & Images.  This is an online index to every name enumerated in the 1901 Census of Canada with some personal data transcribed (name, relationship, place and year of birth, province, district, sub-district) and links to Ancestry.com online digitized copies of the original census pages. Note: paid subscription required.

1901 Canada census - sample entry.

 

  1911   

 

Description

 

Fifth decennial census. Doukhobor population of 10,651. Census day of 01 June 1911. Enumeration was to be completed within thirty days. Census conducted by 9,703 census enumerators (Census Commission, Department of Agriculture). Census organized by province and within provinces by district and sub-district. Census lists the name, place of habitation, sex, relationship to head of household, marital status, month and year of birth, age at last birthday, place of birth, year of immigration, year of naturalization, racial origin, nationality, religion, chief occupation, secondary employment, employer, employee, working on own account, place of employment, weeks employed at chief and secondary occupation, total earnings from chief and secondary occupation, insurance held at date, months at school, ability to read, write, spoken language, cost of education, blindness/infirmity of each person. Census schedules are handwritten. Remarks: Doukhobor entries are found in four provinces: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia. The Doukhobor entries in this census are not fully complete as over 1,000 Doukhobors in British Columbia refused to be enumerated. The 1911 Canada census should not be confused with the 1911 Doukhobor village census, which is a separate and distinct census record.

 

Originals

 

Library and Archives Canada holds microfilm copies of the original 1911 Canada census. These microfilms may be obtained directly or through interlibrary loan. Many libraries, archives, genealogical societies and LDS Family History Centers in Canada also hold microfilm copies.  For an online Index of 1911 Canada census microfilms, visit the Library and Archives Canada website.  Online Digitized Copies of the original 1911 Canada census are also available on the Library and Archives Canada website. Note: this database is searchable geographically (by province, district and sub-district) but not nominally (by name). 

 

Indexes

 

The following indexes are relevant and useful for Doukhobors enumerated in the 1911 Canada census:

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Index of Doukhobor Settlements in the 1911 Canada Census. This online index provides a comprehensive listing of Doukhobor settlement (villages, work camps, homesteads, households, individuals, etc.) organized by province, district, sub-district, page and microfilm number. Use this geographic finding aid to locate Doukhobors in the microfilm copies or online images of the original 1911 Canada census.

  • Automated Genealogy - 1911 Canada Census Index.  This is a free, online index to every name enumerated in the 1911 Census of Canada with some personal data transcribed (name, sex, relationship to head of household, marital status, birth date and age) and links to Library and Archives Canada online digitized copies of the original census pages.

  • Ancestry.com - 1911 Canada Census Index & Images.  This is an online index to every name enumerated in the 1911 Census of Canada with some personal data transcribed (name, relationship, place and year of birth, province, district, sub-district) and links to Ancestry.com online digitized copies of the original census pages. Note: paid subscription required.

1911 Canada census - sample entry.

 


 

Census of the Northwest Provinces

 

In accordance with The Census and Statistics Act, the Government of Canada took a census of the population and agriculture in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta every ten years from 1906 to 1956. The purpose of this census was to track the high rates of population growth in the Northwest provinces. After 1956, this census became part of the Canada-wide census. The most recent Census of Northwest Provinces to be released to the public is 1916.

 

  1906   

 

Description

 

First quinquennial census. Doukhobor population of approximately 9,300. Census day of 24 June 1906. Enumeration was to be completed within thirty days. Census conducted by 673 census enumerators (Census and Statistics Office). Census organized by province and within provinces by district and sub-district. Census lists the name, relationship to head of household, sex, marital status, color, age, birthplace, year of immigration, post office address and location and also all particulars relating to the farm land, crops and livestock of each person. Census schedules are handwritten. Remarks: Doukhobor entries are found in two provinces: Manitoba and Saskatchewan.

 

Originals

 

Library and Archives Canada holds microfilm copies of the original 1906 Census of Northwest Provinces. These microfilms may be obtained directly or through interlibrary loan. Many libraries, archives, genealogical societies and LDS Family History Centers in Canada also hold microfilm copies.  For an online Index of 1906 census microfilms, visit the Library and Archives Canada website.  Online Digitized Copies of the original 1906 Census of Northwest Provinces are also available on the Library and Archives Canada website. Note: this database is searchable geographically (by province, district and sub-district) but not nominally (by name). 

 

Indexes

 

The following indexes are relevant and useful for Doukhobors enumerated in the 1906 Census of Northwest Provinces:

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Index of Doukhobor Settlements in the 1906 Census of Northwest Provinces. This online index provides a comprehensive listing of Doukhobor settlement (villages, work camps, homesteads, households, individuals, etc.) organized by province, district, sub-district, page and microfilm number. Use this geographic finding aid to locate Doukhobors in the microfilm copies or online images of the original 1906 Census of Northwest Provinces.

  • Automated Genealogy - 1906 Census of Northwest Provinces Index.  This is a free, online index to every name enumerated in the 1906 Census of Northwest Provinces with some personal data transcribed (name, sex, relationship to head of household, marital status, birth date and age) and links to Library and Archives Canada online digitized copies of the original census pages.

  • Alberta Family Histories Society - 1906 Census Transcriptions.  This is a free, online index to every name enumerated in the 1906 Census of Northwest Provinces with some personal data transcribed (name, sex, relationship to head of household, marital status, age, birth place, immigration year, post office, province, district, sub-district) and links to Library and Archives Canada online digitized copies of the original census pages.

  • Ancestry.com - 1906 Census of Northwest Provinces Index & Images.  This is an online index to every name enumerated in the 1906 Census of Northwest Provinces with some personal data transcribed (name, relationship, place and year of birth, province, district, sub-district) and links to Ancestry.com online digitized copies of the original census pages. Note: paid subscription required.

1906 Census of Northwest Provinces - sample entry.

 

  1916   

 

Description

 

Second quinquennial census. Doukhobor population of 6,009. Census day of 01 June 1916. Enumeration was to be completed within thirty days. Census conducted by Census and Statistics Office enumerators. Census organized by province and within provinces by district and sub-district. Census lists the name, military service, locality information, relationship to head of household, sex, marital status, age, birthplace, religion, year of immigration, year of naturalization, nationality, racial origin, whether can speak English, mother tongue, weather can read and write, occupation and employment of each person. Census schedules are handwritten. Remarks: Doukhobor entries are found in all three provinces: Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta.

 

Originals

 

Library and Archives Canada holds microfilm copies of the original 1916 Census of Northwest Provinces. These microfilms may be obtained directly or through interlibrary loan. Many libraries, archives, genealogical societies and LDS Family History Centers in Canada also hold microfilm copies.  For an online Index of 1916 census microfilms, visit the Library and Archives Canada website. Online digitized copies of the original 1916 Census of Northwest Provinces are not available on the Library and Archives Canada website.

 

Indexes

 

The following indexes are relevant and useful for Doukhobors enumerated in the 1916 Census of Northwest Provinces:

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Index of Doukhobor Settlements in the 1916 Census of Northwest Provinces. This online index provides a comprehensive listing of Doukhobor settlement (villages, work camps, homesteads, households, individuals, etc.) organized by province, district, sub-district, page and microfilm number. Use this geographic finding aid to locate Doukhobors in the microfilm copies or online images of the original 1916 Census of Northwest Provinces.

  • Ancestry.com - 1916 Census of Northwest Provinces Index & Images.  This is an online index to every name enumerated in the 1916 Census of Northwest Provinces with some personal data transcribed (name, relationship, place and year of birth, province, district, sub-district) and links to Ancestry.com online digitized copies of the original census pages. Note: paid subscription required.

1916 Census of Northwest Provinces - sample entry.

 


 

Doukhobor Village Census  

 

In 1899, the Government of Canada reserved several large blocks of land for Doukhobors to select homesteads. Over the next six years, entries were made for 2,383 Doukhobor homesteads comprising 422,800 acres of land. Much of this land was brought under communal cultivation by Doukhobors residing in villages. By 1905, however, a crisis arose when Community Doukhobors refused to apply for individual homestead patents. At the same time, a rush of new settlers demanded entry on the unpatented Doukhobor lands, still Crown property. In response, the Department of the Interior dispatched a team of homestead inspectors to inspect all Doukhobor lands, determine whether or not improvements had been made, investigate irregularities and conduct a census of Doukhobor villages pursuant to The Dominion Lands Act in 1905. A census revision was conducted in 1911 and 1918. 

 

  1905   

 

Description

 

Doukhobor population of 9,198. Census conducted November 1905. Census conducted by J. Seale, D.C. McNab, J.B. White and J.S. Gibson (Homestead Inspectors, Department of the Interior). Census organized by Doukhobor reserve and within reserves by village. Census lists the name, age, sex, relationship to head of household and denomination (Community or Independent) of each person, the location of each homestead entered upon, the amount of cultivation on each homestead and the type and number of buildings, stock and equipment. Census schedules are typewritten. Remarks: Some parents gave false ages for their sons so that they would be eligible for homestead entry. Some Doukhobors refused to give their age. Scattered throughout the census are remarks about some of the persons.
 

Originals

 

Library and Archives Canada holds microfilm copies of the original 1905 Doukhobor village census. These microfilms may be obtained directly or through interlibrary loan. [Microfilm Reel Nos. T-15532 to T-15535]. The British Columbia Archives also holds microfilm copies of the census, however, these are not available through interlibrary loan. [Microfilm Reel Nos. B-14197 to B-14200].

 

Indexes

 

The following indexes have been prepared for the 1905 Doukhobor village census:

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Index to the 1905 Doukhobor Village Census. This online index provides the Department of the Interior file number for each Doukhobor village enumerated in the 1905 Doukhobor village census. It also shows the National Archives of Canada and British Columbia Archives microfilm number of each village. Researchers can use this index to locate Doukhobor villages in the microfilm copy of the census.

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Surname-Village Index for the 1905 Doukhobor Census. This online index provides a listing of surnames-by-village or villages-by-surname in the 1905 Doukhobor village census. Researchers can use this finding aid to locate families in the microfilm copy of the census.

  • Lapshinoff, Steve. List of Doukhobors Living in Saskatchewan in 1905. (Crescent Valley: self-published, 1996). ISBN 0-9689180-3-4. This 262-page book contains the name, age and relationship to head of household of over 9,100 Doukhobors living in Saskatchewan village settlements in 1905. Full bibliographic references and index. 

1905 Doukhobor village census entry 

 

  1911   

 

Description

 

Doukhobor population of 5,296. Census conducted July 1911. Census conducted by John Bowes (Inspector of Doukhobor Reserves, Department of the Interior). Census organized by Doukhobor reserve and within reserves by village. Census lists the name and denomination (Community or Independent) of each person. Census schedules are typewritten. Remarks: This census does not include Doukhobors located away from villages (on homesteads, in towns, etc.) in Saskatchewan nor those residing outside Saskatchewan. The 1911 Doukhobor village census should not be confused with the 1911 Canada census, which is a separate and distinct census record.

 

Originals

 

Library and Archives Canada holds microfilm copies of the original 1911 Doukhobor village census. These microfilms may be obtained directly or through interlibrary loan. [Microfilm Reel Nos. T-15532 to T-15535]. The British Columbia Archives also holds microfilm copies of the census, however, these are not available through interlibrary loan. [Microfilm Reel Nos. B-14197 to B-14200].

 

Indexes

 

The following index has been prepared for the 1911 Doukhobor village census:

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Index to the 1911 Doukhobor Village Census. This online index provides the Department of the Interior file number for each Doukhobor village enumerated in the 1911 census. It also shows the National Archives of Canada and British Columbia Archives microfilm number of each village. Researchers can use this index to locate Doukhobor villages in the microfilm copy of the census.

  1918   

 

Description

 

Doukhobor population of 1,447. Census conducted June 1918. Census conducted by John Bowes (Inspector of Doukhobor Reserves, Department of the Interior). Census organized by Doukhobor reserve and within reserves by village. Census lists the name, age and denomination (Community or Independent) of each person. Census schedules are typewritten. Remarks: This census does not include Doukhobors located away from villages (on homesteads, in towns, etc.) in Saskatchewan nor those residing outside Saskatchewan. The 1918 Doukhobor village census should not be confused with the 1918 Independent Doukhobor census, which is a separate and distinct census record.

 

Originals

 

Library and Archives Canada holds microfilm copies of the original 1918 Doukhobor village census. These microfilms may be obtained directly or through interlibrary loan. [Microfilm Reel Nos. T-15532 to T-15535]. The British Columbia Archives also holds microfilm copies of the census, however, these are not available through interlibrary loan. [Microfilm Reel Nos. B-14197 to B-14200].

 

Indexes

 

The following index has been prepared for the 1918 Doukhobor village census:

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Index to the 1918 Doukhobor Village Census. This online index provides the Department of the Interior file number for each Doukhobor village enumerated in the 1918 census. It also shows the National Archives of Canada and British Columbia Archives microfilm number of each village. Researchers can use this index to locate Doukhobor villages in the microfilm copy of the census.


 

Independent Doukhobor Census 

 

In 1916, the Society of Independent Doukhobors was formed for the purpose of preserving the military service exemption of its members during the First World War. In 1918, the Society sent a delegation to Ottawa where the Government of Canada assured them that the original exemption granted by Order-in-Council P.C. 2747 on December 6, 1898 was still valid and that Independent Doukhobors would be treated in the same manner as Community Doukhobors. In order to determine the number of Independent Doukhobors who qualified for military service exemption, the Government of Canada ordered the Society to conduct a census of its members pursuant to The Military Service Act in 1918.  A census revision was conducted in 1924.

 

  1918   

 

Description

 

Doukhobor population of 5,794. Census conducted 15 September 1918 to 15 December 1918. Census conducted by Peter E. Verabioff and Alex E. Reilkoff (Executive, Society of Independent Doukhobors). Census organized by province and within provinces by postal district. Census lists the name, middle initial, sex, age at registration, date of birth, marital status and number of living children of each person. Census schedules are handwritten in Russian and typewritten in English. Remarks: This census does not include Doukhobors belonging to the Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood nor the Sons of Freedom. It contains some duplicate entries. The 1918 Independent Doukhobor census should not be confused with the 1918 Doukhobor village census, which is a separate and distinct census record.

 

Originals

 

The Saskatchewan Archives Board, Regina Branch holds microfilm copies of the 1918 Independent Doukhobor census. [Microfilm Reel No. R-2.46]. This microfilm may be obtained directly or through interlibrary loan.

 

Indexes

 

The following index has been prepared for the 1918 census of Independent Doukhobors: 

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. 1918 Census of Independent Doukhobors  (Regina: self-published, 2002). ISBN 0-9730338-0-0 This 187-page book contains the name, age, date of birth, marital status and number of children of 5,794 Independent Doukhobors living in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia in 1918. Full bibliographic references and index. 

1918 Independent Doukhobor census - sample entry.

 

  1924   

 

Description

 

Doukhobor population of approximately 5,100. Census day of 19 August 1924. Census conducted by Peter E. Verabioff (President, Society of Independent Doukhobors). Census organized by province and within provinces by postal district. Census lists the name, age and relationship to head of household of each person. Census schedules are handwritten in Russian and typewritten in English. Remarks: This census is lost and incomplete; only the census entries for Pelly district, Saskatchewan (Doukhobor population: 861) remain extant. This census does not include Doukhobors belonging to the Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood nor the Sons of Freedom.

 

Originals

 

The Saskatchewan Archives Board, Regina Branch holds microfilm copies of the 1924 Independent Doukhobor census for Pelly district, Saskatchewan. [Microfilm Reel No. R-2.46]. This microfilm may be obtained directly or through interlibrary loan.

 

Indexes

 

The following index has been prepared for the 1924 census of Independent Doukhobors: 

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. 1918 Census of Independent Doukhobors  (Regina: self-published, 2002). ISBN 0-9730338-0-0. In addition to the 1918 census entries, this 187-page book contains the name, age, date of birth, marital status and number of children of 861 Independent Doukhobors living in Pelly district, Saskatchewan in 1924. Full bibliographic references and index. 

1924 Independent Doukhobor census - sample entry.

 


 

U.S. Federal Census

 

The U.S. Government has taken a nationwide census of the American population every ten years since 1790. The purpose of the U.S. federal census is to determine population size and distribution, taxation, electoral representation, planning and resources. The first U.S. federal census to include Doukhobors is 1900. The most recent U.S. federal census to be released to the public is 1930.

 

  1900   

 

Description

 

Twelfth decennial census. Doukhobor population of 19. Census day of 01 June 1900. Enumeration was to be completed within two weeks in urban areas and thirty days in rural areas. Census conducted by enumerators of the Census Bureau. Census organized by state and within states by county and enumeration district. Census lists the address, name, relationship to head of family, sex, race, age, marital status, number of children, place of birth, year of immigration and/or naturalization, occupation, months not employed, school, ability to speak English, whether on a farm, home owned or rented of each person. Census schedules are handwritten. Remarks: Doukhobor entries are found in the state of California.

 

Originals

 

The National Archives and Records Administration holds microfilm copies of the original 1900 U.S. federal census. These microfilms may be obtained directly or through interlibrary loan. Many libraries, archives, genealogical societies and LDS Family History Centers in the U.S. also hold microfilm copies.  For an online 1900 U.S. Federal Census Microfilm Catalogue, visit the National Archives and Records Administration website.  Online digitized copies of the original 1900 U.S. federal census are not available on the National Archives and Records Administration website.

 

Indexes

 

The following indexes are relevant and useful for Doukhobors enumerated in the 1900 U.S. federal census:

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Index of Doukhobors in the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. This online index provides a comprehensive listing of all 19 Doukhobors enumerated in the 1900 U.S. federal census with some personal data transcribed (name, relationship, date of birth, age, year of immigration, occupation, state, county and enumeration district. 

  • Ancestry.com - 1900 U.S. Federal Census Index & Images.  This is an online index to every name enumerated in the 1900 U.S. federal census with some personal data transcribed (name, home, place and date of birth, race, relationship, state, county, enumeration district) and links to Ancestry.com online digitized copies of the original census pages. Note: paid subscription required.

1900 U.S. federal census - sample entry.

 

  1910   

 

Description

 

Thirteenth decennial census. Doukhobor population of 34. Census day of 15 April 1910. Enumeration was to be completed within two weeks in urban areas and thirty days in rural areas. Census conducted by enumerators of the Census Bureau. Census organized by state and within states by county and enumeration district. Census lists the name and relationship to the head of household; sex; color or race; age at last birthday; marital status; length of present marriage; if a mother, number of children and number of living children; birthplace and parentsí birthplaces; if foreign born, year of immigration and citizenship status; language spoken; occupation; type of industry employed in; whether employer, employee, or self-employed; number of weeks unemployed; ability to read and write; schooling; if home was rented or owned; if owned, whether free or mortgaged; if home was a house or a farm; if blind in both eyes, and if deaf and dumb of each person. Census schedules are handwritten. Remarks: Doukhobor entries are found in the state of California.

 

Originals

 

The National Archives and Records Administration holds microfilm copies of the original 1910 U.S. federal census. These microfilms may be obtained directly or through interlibrary loan. Many libraries, archives, genealogical societies and LDS Family History Centers in the U.S. also hold microfilm copies.  For an online 1910 U.S. Federal Census Microfilm Catalogue, visit the National Archives and Records Administration website.  Online digitized copies of the original 1910 U.S. federal census are not available on the National Archives and Records Administration website.

 

Indexes

 

The following indexes are relevant and useful for Doukhobors enumerated in the 1910 U.S. federal census:

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Index of Doukhobors in the 1910 U.S. Federal Census. This online index provides a comprehensive listing of all 34 Doukhobors enumerated in the 1910 U.S. federal census with some personal data transcribed (name, relationship, age, year of immigration, occupation, state, county and enumeration district. 

  • Ancestry.com - 1910 U.S. Federal Census Index & Images.  This is an online index to every name enumerated in the 1910 U.S. federal census with some personal data transcribed (name, home, place and date of birth, race, relationship, state, county, enumeration district) and links to Ancestry.com online digitized copies of the original census pages. Note: paid subscription required.

1910 U.S. federal census - sample entry.

 

  1920   

 

Description

 

Fourteenth decennial census. Doukhobor population of 69. Census day of 01 January 1920. Enumeration was to be completed within two weeks in urban areas and thirty days in rural areas. Census conducted by enumerators of the Census Bureau. Census organized by state and within states by county and enumeration district. Census lists the name of street, avenue road, etc.; house number or farm; number of dwelling in order of visitation; number of family in order of visitation; name of each person whose place of abode was with the family; relationship of person enumerated to the head of the family; whether home owned or rented; if owned, whether free or mortgaged; sex; color or race; age at last birthday; whether single, married, widowed, or divorced; year of immigration; whether naturalized or alien; school attendance; whether able to read; whether able to write; personís place of birth; mother tongue; fatherís place of birth; fatherís mother tongue; motherís place of birth; motherís mother tongue; whether able to speak English; trade, profession, or particular kind of work done; industry, business, or establishment in which at work; whether employer, salary or wage worker, or working on own account; number of farm schedule of each person. Census schedules are handwritten. Remarks: Doukhobor entries are found in three states: Montana, Oregon and California.

 

Originals

 

The National Archives and Records Administration holds microfilm copies of the original 1920 U.S. federal census. These microfilms may be obtained directly or through interlibrary loan. Many libraries, archives, genealogical societies and LDS Family History Centers in the U.S. also hold microfilm copies.  For an online 1920 U.S. Federal Census Microfilm Catalogue, visit the National Archives and Records Administration website.  Online digitized copies of the original 1920 U.S. federal census are not available on the National Archives and Records Administration website.

 

Indexes

 

The following indexes are relevant and useful for Doukhobors enumerated in the 1920 U.S. federal census:

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Index of Doukhobors in the 1920 U.S. Federal Census. This online index provides a comprehensive listing of all 69 Doukhobors enumerated in the 1920 U.S. federal census with some personal data transcribed (name, relationship, age, year of immigration, occupation, state, county and enumeration district. 

  • Ancestry.com - 1920 U.S. Federal Census Index & Images.  This is an online index to every name enumerated in the 1920 U.S. federal census with some personal data transcribed (name, home, place and date of birth, race, relationship, state, county, enumeration district) and links to Ancestry.com online digitized copies of the original census pages. Note: paid subscription required.

1920 U.S. federal census - sample entry.

 

  1930   

 

Description

 

Fifteenth decennial census. Doukhobor population of 451. Census day of 01 April 1930. Enumeration was to be completed within two weeks in urban areas and thirty days in rural areas. Census conducted by enumerators of the Census Bureau. Census organized by state and within states by county and enumeration district. Census lists the name of street, avenue road, etc.; house number; number of dwelling in order of visitation; number of family in order of visitation; name of each person whose place of abode was with the family; relationship of person enumerated to the head of the family; whether home owned or rented; value of home if owned; if rented, monthly rental; whether family owned a radio set; whether family owned a farm; sex; color or race; age at last birthday; whether single, married, widowed, or divorced; age at first marriage; school attendance; whether able to read or write; person's place of birth; father's place of birth; mother's place of birth; language spoken in home before immigration; year of immigration; whether naturalized or alien; whether able to speak English; trade, profession, or particular kind of work done; industry, business, or establishment in which at work; whether employer, salary or wage worker, or working on own account; number on farm schedule of each person. Census schedules are handwritten. Remarks: Doukhobor entries are found in four states: Michigan, Illinois, Oregon and California.

 

Originals

 

The National Archives and Records Administration holds microfilm copies of the original 1930 U.S. federal census. These microfilms may be obtained directly or through interlibrary loan. Many libraries, archives, genealogical societies and LDS Family History Centers in the U.S. also hold microfilm copies.  For an online 1930 U.S. Federal Census Microfilm Catalogue, visit the National Archives and Records Administration website.  Online digitized copies of the original 1930 U.S. federal census are not available on the National Archives and Records Administration website.

 

Indexes

 

The following indexes are relevant and useful for Doukhobors enumerated in the 1930 U.S. federal census:

  • Kalmakoff, Jonathan. Index of Doukhobors in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census. This online index provides a comprehensive listing of all 451 Doukhobors enumerated in the 1930 U.S. federal census with some personal data transcribed (name, relationship, age, year of immigration, occupation, state, county and enumeration district. 

  • Ancestry.com - 1930 U.S. Federal Census Index & Images.  This is an online index to every name enumerated in the 1930 U.S. federal census with some personal data transcribed (name, home, place and date of birth, race, relationship, state, county, enumeration district) and links to Ancestry.com online digitized copies of the original census pages. Note: paid subscription required.

1930 U.S. federal census - sample entry.

 


 

Notes

 

Completeness

 

Sometimes census enumerators failed to complete the entire census form for each household. For example, some 1901 Canada census entries list the head of household only; others list persons by initials; still others omit dates of birth.  As well, Doukhobors sometimes refused to be enumerated by census takers. For example, over 1,000 Doukhobors in British Columbia refused to be enumerated in the 1911 Canada census. Occasionally census records contain duplicate entries. For example, the 1916 Census of Northwest Provinces contains a number of duplicate entries where census enumerators from adjoining sub-districts enumerated the same population twice. The purpose of a census can also limit its completeness; this is especially true where the focus of the census is a specific group or interest. For example, the 1918 Independent Doukhobor census was never intended to be an enumeration of all Doukhobors in Canada - only Independent Doukhobors.

 

Accuracy

 

While census records contain some of the most valuable information available, they may also contain false and misleading data. Mistakes were sometimes made by census enumerators while entering information. Census enumerators were not required to consult original records, nor even ask members of the household themselves to secure their data. They could and did question neighbors, small children and visiting relatives. Family members may also have provided incorrect information to census enumerators, inadvertently or deliberately. Often Doukhobors did not know or remember and could only guess their age. Occasionally, Doukhobor parents gave false ages for their sons so that they would be eligible for homestead entry or else ineligible for military service. Sometimes even if the data was correctly entered, the format may be misleading. For example, children listed as sons and daughters of the head may be step-children or adopted. Researchers must critically evaluate and corroborate such data with other material to ensure accuracy.

 

Spelling

 

Many challenges arise with the spelling and form of names in census records. Most Doukhobor immigrants were illiterate and did not know how to spell their own names. Those who were literate in Russian were not necessarily literate in English. Census enumerators who did not understand the Russian (or broken English) spoken by Doukhobor immigrants often recorded the names phonetically the way they sounded. As a result, many alternate spellings were recorded for the same name. For example, the surname Fofanov appears in the 1901 Canada census as Fofanoff, Fonfonoff, Fofonfo, Fofon, Fonfon, Fachwano, Fecheno, Hohanoff, Hochwano, Hochwanow, Hogheno and Whochwanow. Researchers must be able to recognize alternate spellings for the surnames they are looking for. Note also that the form of name used by Doukhobors may vary from one census to the next. For example, a Doukhobor might be listed by their proper Russian name (i.e. Vasily), a diminutive Russian name (i.e. Vasya) or an adopted English name (i.e. William or Bill). 

 

Legibility

 

Worn and torn pages, faded or smudged ink, poor handwriting, and improper focus or exposure for microfilming all affect the legibility of census records, making them difficult to decipher. For example, the handwritten entries in the 1901 Canada census are often illegible. Sometimes pages may be microfilmed out of order or missing altogether. For example, one page was missed during the microfilming of the 1905 Doukhobor village census by the British Columbia Archives.

 

Census Indexes

 

An index is a typed copy of information extracted from an original census record which is published online or offline. Indexes can be excellent finding aids for genealogical research, allowing the researcher to pinpoint specific data and significantly reduce research time. However, indexes vary significantly in the quantity of information they contain. Some contain a list of names with or without other details, while others are full transcriptions of the original records. Similarly, indexes vary substantially in the quality of information they contain. Some have serious errors and omissions (especially regarding spelling), while others are very good indeed, having been checked and double checked. Accordingly, indexes should be used with caution. Whenever you trace an ancestor in a census index, you should also always look at, and if possible, obtain a copy of the original census record.

 

Scope of Census Records

 

Taken together, there is a broad scope of census records containing information about Doukhobors for the first two-plus decades of their life in Canada and the United States. These records are summarized below for quick reference.

 

Year Census General Description
1900 U.S. Federal Census Doukhobors living in US only
1901 Canada Census Doukhobors living in Canada; incomplete
1905 Doukhobor Village Census Doukhobors living in SK villages only
1906 Census of Northwest Provinces Doukhobors living in MB & SK
1910 U.S. Federal Census Doukhobors living in US only
1911 Canada Census Doukhobors living in Canada; incomplete
1911 Doukhobor Village Census Doukhobors living in SK villages only
1916 Census of Northwest Provinces Doukhobors living in MB, SK, AB Ė not BC
1918 Independent Doukhobor Census Independent Doukhobors living in Canada only
1918 Doukhobor Village Census Doukhobors living in SK villages only
1920 U.S. Federal Census Doukhobors living in US only
1924 Independent Doukhobor Census Independent Doukhobors living in Pelly, SK only
1930 U.S. Federal Census Doukhobors living in US only

 

An earlier version of this article was reproduced by permission in the Bulletin Vol 33 No 3 (Regina: Saskatchewan Genealogical Society, Sept. 2002).