Doukhobor Genealogy Website  
 

Doukhobor Immigrant Ship Descriptions

 

by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff

 

The following index is established to assist family researchers seeking information about the ships that brought their Doukhobor immigrant ancestors to Canada. Search alphabetically by ship name to learn about the physical dimensions and capacity, builders, launches, shipping lines, shipping routes and schedules, name changes, wreck and salvage data, and other information for over 68 Doukhobor immigrant ships. Also included are ship photos and links to other sites of interest.


 

A -

 

Albania
The "Cairnrona" was built by Swan & Hunter, Wallsend-on-Tyne in 1900 as the "Consuelo" for the Wilson Line of Hull. She was a 6,025 gross ton ship, length 461.5ft x beam 52.1ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 12 knots. She had accommodation for 13-1st class passengers. Launched on 3/2/1900, she sailed on her maiden voyage from Hull to New York on 5/8/1900. She made her last voyage for Wilson's when she left Hull on 1/3/1908 for Boston and New York. In 1909 she was sold to the Thomson Line, renamed "Cairnrona" and refitted to carry 50-1st and 800-3rd class passengers and with a tonnage of 7,640 tons. She made her first voyage from London to St John, New Brunswick in Jan 1910 (arr. 25/1/1910) and a further voyage (arr. 11/3/1910). In April 1910 she suffered fire in her coal bunkers while off Beachy Head in the English Channel and over 700 passengers were transferred temporarily to the Furness Withy cargo steamer "Kanawha". The fire was extinguished and she returned to London and sailed again on 16th April for Quebec and Montreal. She commenced her last voyage on 8/4/1911 when she left St John, New Brunswick for London. In 1911 she was sold to Cunard and renamed "Albania". She commenced the first Cunard voyage to the St Lawrence when she left London on 2/5/1911 for Southampton, Quebec and Montreal. Her last voyage on this service commenced 17/10/1911 and in 1912 she was sold to the Bank Line (Andrew Weir & Co) and renamed "Poleric". She was scrapped in 1930.
 

SS Albania.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.


America
The "America" was a 8,996 gross ton ship, length 476.5ft x beam 55.7ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 16 knots. Accommodation for 30-1st, 220-2nd and 2,400-3rd class passengers. Built by Cantieri Navale Riuniti, Muggiano (engines by Wallsend Slipway Co), she was launched for La Veloce on 01/11/1908 and was used on their New York service. Purchased by Navigazione Generale Italiana in 1912, she started her first Genoa - Naples - New York - Philadelphia voyage on 23/04/1912. On 24/12/1916 she started her 34th and last Genoa - New York sailing until after the war, and resumed on 09/02/1919 when she left Genoa for Marseilles and New York. Her last Genoa - Naples - New York voyage commenced 19/11/1923 and she then made two Genoa - Naples - Boston sailings in March and April 1924 before transferring to the South American service. Scrapped in 1928.
 

Amerika

The "Amerika" of 1912 was built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast in 1905 for the Hamburg America Line. She was a 22,225 gross ton ship, length 669ft x beam 74.3ft, two funnels, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 18 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 386-1st, 150-2nd, 222-3rd and 1,750-4th class. She carried a crew of 577. Launched on 20/4/1905, she was the largest ship in the world at the time. On 11/10/1905 she sailed from Hamburg on her maiden voyage to Dover, Cherbourg and New York. In 1907 she was rebuilt to 22,621 tons and on 4/10/1912 collided with and sank the British submarine B.2 off Dover with the loss of 15 lives. On 9/5/1914 she started her last Hamburg - Southampton - Cherbourg - New York crossing and on 10/6/1914 she commenced Hamburg - Boulogne - Southampton - Boston sailings. Her last voyage to Boston commenced on 14/7/1914 (arr 24/7/1914) and she remained in Boston until April 1917 when she was seized by the US authorities, renamed "America" and was used as an army transport. Between 1917-18 she made 9 trooping voyages to France and on 14/7/1918 collided with and sank the British ship "Instructor" with the loss of 16 lives. On Oct.15th 1918 she sank at Hoboken pier during coaling due to bad trim with the loss of 6 lives, and was refloated on 21/11/1918. She was laid up in September 1919 and on 20/1/1920 she sailed from New York via Panama to Vladivostock (arr 20/4/1920) and embarked 6,500 troops for Trieste via Suez. On 8/9/1920 she arrived in New York with 2,666 emigrants from the Mediterranean. In 1921 she was converted to oil fuel and chartered to US Mail with accommodation for 225-1st, 425-2nd and 1,500-3rd class passengers and on 25/6/1921 commenced sailing between New York, Plymouth, Cherbourg and Bremen and commenced her third and last voyage on this service on 27/8/1921. In late 1921 she went to the United States Line and commenced her first voyage for these owners on 28/9/1921 when she left New York for Plymouth, Cherbourg, Bremen, Southampton, Cherbourg, Queenstown (Cobh) and New York. She was reconditioned in June 1923 to 21,114 tons and with passenger accommodation for 692-cabin and 1,056-3rd class. On March 10th 1926 she was gutted by fire while being refitted at Newport News and was rebuilt to 21,329 tons, and with passenger accommodation for 835-cabin, 516-tourist and 3rd class. She resumed New York - Plymouth - Cherbourg - Bremen sailings on 21/3/1928 and on 25/8/1931 commenced her last Hamburg - Southampton - Cherbourg - New York (arr 4/9/1931) crossing. She was then laid up in the reserve fleet at Chesapeake Bay until 1940 when she became a US army accommodation ship for 1,200 troops at St John's NF. In January 1941 she was renamed "Edmund B.Alexander" and became a troop transport between New Orleans and Panama. At this time she was only capable of 10 knots and in 1942-3 was rebuilt with one funnel, her mast heights reduced and her engines converted by the Bethlehem Steel Corp, Baltimore to give her a speed of 17 knots. She then operated between New York and Europe with accommodation for 5,000 troops. In March 1946 she was altered to accommodate military dependents (904 adults and 314 children) between New York and Europe. In 1949 she was laid up at Baltimore and in 1951 in the Hudson River. In January 1957 she was sold to the Bethlehem Steel Corp, towed to Baltimore and scrapped.

 

SS Amerika. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.

 

Andania

13,950 gross tons, length 538ft x beam 65.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 15 knots, accommodation for 484-cabin class and 1,222-3rd class passengers. Launched on 01/11/1921 by Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., Hebburn-on-Tyne for Cunard Line, Liverpool, she started her maiden voyage on 01/06/1922 when she sailed from Southampton for Quebec and Montreal. On 18/11/1924 she transferred to Hamburg - Southampton - Halifax - New York sailings and commenced her last New York voyage on 26/10/1926. Her first Liverpool - Greenock - Belfast - Quebec - Montreal voyage started on 29/04/1927 and she continued these sailings until 1939 when she was converted to an Armed Merchant Cruiser. On 16/06/1940 she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine UA (Cohausz) about 230 miles WNW of the Faroe Islands with no loss of life.

 

SS Andania. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.

 

Antonia

The "Antonia" was a 13,867 gross ton ship, length 519.9ft x beam 65.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. Accommodation for 500-cabin and 1,200-3rd class passengers. Built by Vickers Ltd, Barrow, she was launched for the Cunard Line on 11/05/1921. Her maiden voyage started on 15/06/1922 when she sailed from London for Southampton, Quebec and Montreal. In July 1927 she was refitted to carry cabin, tourist and 3rd class passengers and on 14/04/1928 started her first Liverpool - Greenock - Belfast - Quebec - Montreal sailing. Converted to an Armed Merchant Cruiser in 1940, she was sold to the British Admiralty in March 1942, converted to a repair ship and renamed "Wayland". Scrapped at Troon, Scotland in 1948.

 

SS Antonia.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.

 

Arabic

The "Berlin" was built by A.G.Weser of Bremen in 1908 for Norddeutscher Lloyd (North German Lloyd), and was the third vessel of that name they owned. She was a 17,324 gross ton vessel, length 590.2ft x beam 69.7ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 17 knots. There was accommodation for 266-1st class, 246-2nd class and 2,700-3rd class passengers. Launched on 7/11/1908, she sailed from Bremen on 1/5/1909 on her maiden voyage to Southampton, Cherbourg and New York. On 15/5/1909 she made her first voyage from New York to Naples and Genoa and on 14/5/1914 made her last run Genoa - Naples - New York. On 4/6/1914 made first voyage New York - Bremen and 18/7/1914 last voyage on this service. In August 1914 she was converted to a minelayer and it was on 26/10/1914 that one of her mines sank the British battleship HMS AUDACIOUS. On 17/11/1914 she was interned at Trondhiem, Norway and in 1919, surrendered to Britain and was used as a troopship to India under P&O management. In 1920 she was sold to White Star Line, refitted and renamed "Arabic". On 7/9/1921 she left Southampton for one round voyage to Cherbourg and New York and on 20/9/1921 was transferred to New York - Naples - Genoa service, making her last run from Genoa - Naples - Boston - New York in October 1923. She was then refitted to carry 500-cabin class and 1,200-3rd class passengers and on 16/8/1924 commenced the Hamburg - Southampton - Cherbourg - Halifax - New York service until making her last voyage on 11/10/1926. She then went to the Red Star Line and was put onto their New York - Plymouth - Cherbourg - Antwerp run from 30/10/1926 - 27/12/1929. On 11/1/1930 she went back to White Star Line and their New York - Cobh - Liverpool run and was refitted to carry 177-cabin, 319-tourist and 823-3rd class passengers. She made five round voyages on this service, commencing the last one on 16/7/1930 and was then laid up. She was scrapped in 1931 at Genoa.

 

SS Arabic.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.

 

Ascania (1911)

The Ascania - one of two ships in the Cunard Line fleet by this name - was built in 1911 by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson in Newcastle, originally as the "Gerona" for the Thompson Line, but was taken over before completion by the Cunard Line as the "Ascania". Her tonnage was 9,111 tons gross and 5,699 tons net. Her dimensions were 466 ft x 56 ft. There was accommodation for 200 1st class passengers and 1500 3rd class passengers. She was wrecked in 1918 off Cape Ray.

 

SS Ascania. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.

 

Ascania (1923)

Built for the Cunard SS Co by Armstrong Whitworth & Co, Walker-on-Tyne, she was a 14,013 gross ton ship, overall length 538ft x beam 65.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. Accommodation for 500-cabin and 1,200-3rd class passengers. Launched on 20/12/23, she started her maiden voyage when she left London (cargo) for Southampton (22/05/25), Quebec, and Montreal. In July 1927 her accommodation was altered to cabin, tourist and 3rd class, and in Mar.1939 to cabin and 3rd class. Her last prewar voyage started when she left London (cargo) for Southampton (12/08/39), Quebec, Montreal and Liverpool. She was then converted to an Armed Merchant Cruiser and in 1943 became a troopship. In Dec.1947 she resumed commercial service and sailed from Liverpool to Halifax. Refitted in Autumn 1949 to 14,440 gross tons and with accommodation for 200-1st and 500-tourist class passengers. She resumed the Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal service on 21/04/50. On 30/09/55 she transferred to Southampton - Havre - Quebec - Montreal sailings, and commenced her last voyage on this service on 26/10/56. She then made a Southampton - Cyprus voyage as a troopship and on 30/12/56 sailed from Southampton for Newport, Mon, where she was scrapped.


Aquitania
Built by John Brown & Co, Glasgow in 1913 for the Cunard Steamship Co. She was a 45,647 gross ton ship, overall length 901.5ft x beam 97ft (274,77m x 29,56m), four funnels, two masts, four screws and a speed of 23 knots. There was accommodation for 597-1st, 614-2nd and 2,052-3rd class passengers. Launched on 21/04/1913, she started her maiden voyage between Liverpool and New York on 30/05/1914. Her third and last voyage before the Great War, started on 11/07/1914 and she was then fitted out as an Armed Merchant Cruiser. In August 1914 she was slightly damaged in collision near the Irish coast, returned to Liverpool and was laid up until 1915. At various times between 1915 and 1919 she was used as a troopship, hospital ship and laid up. Her first voyage after the Armistice started 19/02/1919 when she was used to repatriate troops from Liverpool and Brest to New York and she made three voyages on this service. She resumed commercial voyages on 14/06/1919 when she left Southampton for Halifax and New York. Between December 1919 and July 1920 she was converted from coal to oil burning and resumed the Liverpool - New York route on 17/07/1920. On 14/08/1920 she transferred to the Southampton - Cherbourg - New York service and in 1927 was refitted to carry 1st, 2nd, tourist and 3rd class passengers. In October 1931 she became a 1st, tourist and 3rd class ship. In October 1931 she made the first ever North Atlantic turnround in two weeks when she left Southampton for New York on 7th October and again on 21st October. In February 1936 she became cabin, tourist and 3rd class and started her last peacetime voyage between Southampton and New York on 23/08/1939. Between 1939 and 1948 she served as a troopship and on 25/05/1948 started her first Southampton - Halifax voyage with war brides, later with emigrants, making 25 round voyages on this service. Her last sailing started 14/11/1949 when she left Southampton for Halifax and she made a total of 443 round voyages on the North Atlantic. She was scrapped at Faslane, Scotland in 1950.
 

SS Aquitania.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.


Ausonia
7,907 gross tons, length 450.6ft x beam 54.2ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw, speed 12 knots, accommodation for 37-1st and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Launched on 18/08/1909 by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Wallsend-on-Tyne (engines by Palmers Co., Ltd, Jarrow) as the "Tortona" for the Thomson Line, she sailed on 22/10/1909 from Middlesbrough for Quebec and Montreal. On 20/11/1909 she left Montreal for Quebec, Naples, Genoa and Leghorn and in March 1910 made her first Naples - Portland voyage. She later sailed between Naples, Quebec and Montreal and between London, Quebec and Montreal. In 1911 she was sold to the Cunard SS Co and renamed "Ausonia". Used on their new London - Southampton - Quebec - Montreal service until August 1914 when she was chartered to Anchor Line and made four Glasgow - Moville - New York voyages after which she returned to Cunard's Canada service. On 30/05/1918 she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.55 in the North Atlantic with the loss of 55 lives.
 

SS Ausonia.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.

 

B -


Barcelona
Built in 1896 by Harland & Wolff, Belfast as the "Arabia" for the Hamburg America Line, her details were - 5,446 gross tons, length 398.3ft x beam 49ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was capacity for 20-1st and 1,100-3rd class passengers. Launched on 21/11/1896, she sailed on her maiden voyage from Hamburg for Boston, Philadelphia and Baltimore on 17/3/1897. On 8/5/1897 she commenced the first of three Hamburg - Montreal sailings and subsequently sailed between Hamburg and New York or Philadelphia. She started her last Hamburg - New York voyage on 12/5/1899 and was then sold to Sloman of Hamburg and renamed "Barcelona". She resumed Hamburg - New York sailings for her new owners on 5/7/1899, and in May 1903 was chartered back to Hamburg America Line. They eventually repurchased her from Sloman in 1907 and she continued North Atlantic voyages until 16/5/1914 when she started her last Hamburg - Baltimore sailing. In June 1914 she started her first New York to the Mediterranean crossing, on route to the Black Sea and was seized by Italy in 1915. Renamed "Ancona", and used by Italian owners until 1924 when she was scrapped.
 

SS Arabia aka Barcelona. Courtesy RootsWeb.


Bavarian
The "Bavarian" was a 10,376 gross ton ship, length 501.1ft x beam 59.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 16 knots. There was accommodation for 240-1st, 220-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Built by Wm Denny & Bros, Dumbarton, she was launched for the Allan Line on 11/-5/1899. Her maiden voyage started on 24/08/1899 when she sailed from Liverpool for Quebec and Montreal. After one further voyage on this route, she was used as a transport ship to South Africa during the Boer War. She resumed Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal voyages on 9/10/1902 and was wrecked near Montreal on 3/11/1905 with no loss of life and was broken up where she lay.

 

SS Bavarian.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.

 

Belgravia

The steamship "Belgravia" - the first of two steamships of this name owned by the Hamburg-America Line - was built by Blohm & Voss, Hamburg (ship #133), and launched on 10/05/1899. 10,155 tons; 152,72 x 18,96 meters/501.1 x 62.2 feet (length x breadth); 1 funnel, 2 masts; twin-screw propulsion, quadruple-expansion engines, service speed 12 knots; accommodation for 300 passengers in 2nd class, 2,400 in steerage; crew of 150. Intended for the Hamburg-America Line's Hamburg-Baltimore service, which was not a success. 16/08/1899, maiden voyage, Hamburg-Baltimore; subsequently Hamburg-New York or Baltimore, or Genoa-Naples-New York. 1900, 10,982 tons. 9/02/1905, last voyage, Hamburg-Baltimore. 1905, refitted by Blohm & Voss; 11,397 tons. 31/05/1905, to the Russian Navy; renamed RIGA. 1906, taken over by the Black & Asow Sea Steamship Co, Odessa. 1919, taken over by the state maritime agency Sovtorgflot and renamed "Transbalt". 1920-1923, hospital ship. 13/06/1945, accidentally torpedoed and sunk by U.S. submarine Spadefish, which mistook her for a Japanese ship, in the La Perouse Strait.
 

SS Belgravia. U.S. Library of Congress.


Berengaria
The "Imperator" was a luxury liner. She was a 51,969 gross ton ship, length 882.8ft x beam 98.3ft, three funnels, two masts, four propellers and a speed of 22 knots. There was accommodation for 908-1st, 592-2nd, 962-3rd and 1,772-4th class passengers. Built by AG Vulcan, Hamburg, she was launched on 23/05/1912 for the Hamburg America Line. She started her maiden voyage from Hamburg to Southampton, Cherbourg and New York on 11/06/1913 and her last voyage on this route started on 8/07/1914 after which she was laid up at Hamburg. Surrendered to the USA in 1919, she was allocated to Britain as war reparations in 1920 and managed by Cunard Line. After rebuilding, she was used on the Southampton - Cherbourg - New York service and was purchased by Cunard in 1921 and renamed "Berengaria". She continued the same service until 1938 when, on 3rd March she was damaged by fire at New York. She then sailed to Southampton without passengers, and arrived at Jarrow in December where she was partly dismantled. In 1946 she was towed to Rosyth where she was scrapped.
 

SS Berengaria.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.

 

Blucher
See entry for the "Suffren".

 

SS Blucher. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.

 

Bremen
The steamship "Bremen" was built by F. Schuchau, of Danzig, for the North German Lloyd Line, and launched on 14/11/1896. 10,525 tons; 160,04 x 18,38 meters (525.1 x 60.3 feet, length x beam); 2 funnels, 2 masts; twin screw propulsion, service speed 15 knots; accommodation for 230 1st-, 250 2nd-, and 1,850 3rd-class passengers. 5/06/1897, maiden voyage, Bremen- Southampton-New York. 20/10/1897, first voyage, Bremen-Suez Canal-Australia. Interchangeable between the New York and Australia services. 30/06/1900, damaged in a fire at the North German Lloyd dock at Hoboken, New Jersey, along with the other North German Lloyd steamships Saale, Main and Kaiser Wilhelm Der Grosse; almost 300 lives lost (including firefighters), 12 on the Bremen. 11/10/1900, after provisional repairs, returned to Germany; refitted and lengthened to 167,78 meters (550.5 feet), 11,570 tons, by Vulcan, of Stettin. 12/10/1901, resumed Bremen-Southampton- New York service. 27/09/1911, last voyage, Bremen-Australia (16 roundtrip voyages). 20/06/1914, last voyage, Bremen-Southampton-New York; laid up at Bremen during World War I. 4/04/1919, surrendered to Britain; name unchanged; operated, on behalf of the Shipping Controller, by the P & O Line on its Australia service. 1921, sold to the Byron Steamship Co, and renamed "Constantinople"  5/12/1921, first voyage, Constanza-Constantinople-Piraeus- New York. 4/09/1923, last voyage, Constanza-Constantinople-Piraeus-New York (8 roundtrip voyages). 1924, renamed "King Alexander". 24/05/1924, first voyage, Piraeus-Patras-New York. 21/04/1925, last voyage, Piraeus-Patras-New York (6 roundtrip voyages). 1929, scrapped at Venice.
 

SS Bremen.  U.S. Library of Congress.

 

C -


Californian
6,223 gross tons, length 448ft x beam 54ft, one funnel, four masts, triple expansion engines powering a single screw, speed 14 knots, accommodation for 47 passengers in one class and 55 crew members. Built by Caledon Shipbuilding and Engineering Company Ltd., Dundee, she was launched on 26/11/1901 for the Leyland Line. Her maiden voyage started 31/01/1902 when she sailed from Dundee for New Orleans. In April 1902, she was chartered to Dominion Line for five Liverpool – Portland sailings before being returned to Leyland Line and transferred to Liverpool - Le Havre - New York – Boston sailings for the next ten years. On 15/04/1912 she was in the vicinity of the Titanic when it sank but did not respond to her distress signals. The subsequent inquiry into the “Californian Incident” held that the Californian's crew had seen Titanic and her rockets she sent up, but deliberately ignored the sinking ship. The Californian continued normal service until World War I when the British government took control of the ship. The ship was torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine on 09/11/1915, 61 miles (98 km) southwest of Cape Matapan, Greece with the loss of one life.
 

SS Californian. U.S. Library of Congress.


Cameronia
The "Cameronia" was built in 1919 by Wm Beardmore & Co Ltd, Glasgow for the Anchor Line of Glasgow. She was a 16,365 gross ton ship, length 552.4ft x beam 70.4ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 16 knots. There was accommodation for 265-1st, 370-2nd and 1,100-3rd class passengers. Launched on 23/12/1919, the installation of the final parts of her passenger accommodation were delayed due to a strike and she had to be towed to Cherbourg for completion. She commenced her maiden voyage from Glasgow to Liverpool and New York on 11/5/1921 and between 1921-1924 she made several similar Cunard-Anchor Line voyages. In October 1925 she rescued the crew of the burning US Coastguard cutter "CG 128" off New York and in November of the same year collided with the Norwegian steamer Hauk in the Clyde. In January 1926, one voyage had to be abandoned off Ireland due to steering gear failure and she was forced to put back to Glasgow for repair. In August of that year she missed collision with the Cunard liner Samaria by only six feet in dense fog. She was refurbished in 1929 to carry 290-cabin, 431-tourist and 698-3rd class passengers. In December 1932 the ship suffered an influenza epidemic and 400 passengers were confined to their beds. It is reported that the ship's doctor made 500 visits a day to his patients. Between December 1934 and October 1935 the ship was laid up at Glasgow, and from then until April 1936 was used as a troopship to the Far East carrying a total of over 16,000 personnel. In 1936 she was refitted again and on 10/7/1936 resumed the Glasgow - New York service. In 1937 she attended the Spithead Naval Review for the coronation of King George VI and on 05/09/1939 left Glasgow and became the first British ship to enter New York after the outbreak of war. She made 11 unescorted transatlantic voyages until she was requisitioned as a troopship in December 1940. In January 1941 she trooped 3,000 men to Suez via the Cape and then shuttled between Alexandria and Greece, mainly with New Zealanders. In 1942 she took part in the training and run up to the North African landings (Operation Torch) and in November, took part in the landings. She was hit by an aerial torpedo in December 1942 with the loss of 17 lives, but reached Bone, Algeria. She returned to Gibralter for repair and thence to the Clyde. In June 1943 she resumed service and participated in carrying the Canadian Tank Division from Malta to Sicily and in June 1944 was the largest troopship to take part in the Normandy landings. In August 1945 she was derequisitioned after carrying a total of 163,789 troops over a total distance of 321,323 miles. Laid up as 'worn out' at 25 years of age, she was brought out of retirement in July 1948 and refitted by Barclay Curle at Elderslie for use as an Australian emigration ship, with capacity for 1,266 passengers. On 1/11/1948 she commenced the first of 11 UK-Australia voyages. On 21/1/1953 she was sold to the Ministry of Transport and renamed "Empire Clyde" and in March 1958 was scrapped at Newport, Mon.

 

SS Cameronia. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.

 

Campanello
The "Campanello" was a 9,001 gross ton ship, built in 1901 by Palmers Co Ltd, Jarrow-on-Tyne. Her details were - length 470ft x beam 56.8ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was capacity for 70-1st and 2,200-3rd class passengers. Launched on 29/8/1901 as the "British Empire" for British Shipowners Co, she sailed for the Phoenix Line between Antwerp and New York as a cargo ship. In 1906 she was purchased by the Italian owned Navigazione Generale Italiana, fitted with passenger accommodation and renamed "Campania". She commenced her first Genoa - Naples - Palermo - New York voyage on 7/3/1907 and her last on 17/5/1909. In 1910 she was chartered to the British owned Northwest Transport and started her first Hamburg - Rotterdam - Halifax - New York voyage on 16/2/1910. She made one further sailing on 5/4/1910 from Rotterdam to Halifax and New York and was then sold by NGI to Canadian Northern Steamships, who chartered her to their subsidiary Uranium Steamship Co. On 21/5/1910 she started her first Rotterdam - Halifax - New York voyage for these owners, and commenced her third and last sailing on this route on 13/8/1910. Renamed "Campanello", she resumed the same service on 22/9/1910 and started her last Rotterdam - Halifax - New York voyage on 9/7/1914. In October 1914 she transferred to Avonmouth - Quebec - Montreal sailings. In 1916, the fleet and goodwill of the Canadian Northern and Uranium SS Co were bought by Cunard, the ship was renamed "Flavia" and continued Avonmouth - Canada sailings. On 24/8/1918 she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.107 off Tory Island, Northern Ireland.
 

SS Campania aka Campanello.  Courtesy The ShipsList www.theshipslist.com.


Canada
The "Canada" was a 8,806 gross ton ship built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast in 1896 for the Dominion Line. Her details were - length 500.4ft x beam 58.2ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. There was accommodation for 200-1st, 200-2nd, and 800-3rd class passengers. She was launched on 14/5/1896 and sailed from Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Quebec and Montreal on 1/10/1896. After two round voyages, she was transferred on 23/12/1896, to the Liverpool - Boston service. From November 1899 to late 1902, she was used as a transport ship for the Boer War, and on 19/3/1903 she went on the Liverpool - Halifax - Boston run. At this time she was rebuilt to a tonnage of 9,413 tons and on 22/4/1903 she resumed the Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal service. In November 1909 she was further altered to carry 463-2nd and 755-3rd class passengers and on 22/8/1914 commenced her last voyage from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal, being used on the return passage to carry part of the Canadian Expeditionary Force to Europe. In 1914 she was used as an accommodation ship for German prisoners and between 1915 - 1918 was used as a transport ship. In November 1918 she resumed the Liverpool - Portland service until 13/8/1926, when she commenced her last voyage from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal. She was scrapped in Italy in 1926.

 

SS Canada. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.

 

Canopic

The "Canopic" was built in 1900 for the Dominion Line as the "Commonwealth" by Harland & Wolff, Belfast; this was a 12,097 gross ton ship, length 578.3ft x beam 59.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a service speed of 16 knots. There was accommodation for 250-1st, 250-2nd and 800-3rd class passengers. Launched on 31/5/1900, she sailed from Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Boston on 4/10/1900. In November 1901 she made the first of three Boston - Naples - Genoa round voyages and on 10/4/1902 resumed Liverpool - Boston sailings. She commenced her last voyage on this service on 5/11/1903 and then went to the White Star Line when they took over Dominion Line's Boston and Mediterranean services. Renamed "Canopic", she resumed Liverpool - Boston voyages on 14/1/1904 and later the same month commenced Boston - Naples - Genoa sailings. On 23/8/1914 she started her first New York - Naples - Genoa - Boston - New York voyage, and arrived in Boston on her last crossing from Genoa and Naples on 30/3/1918. On 6/2/1919 she commenced her first Liverpool - Boston - New York voyage and on 27/2/1919 resumed New York - Mediterranean voyages. She made her last Genoa - Naples - Boston - New York voyage in October 1921 and on 13/4/1922 transferred to the Liverpool - Halifax - Boston route with cabin and 3rd class passengers. On 13/5/1922 she started the first of six Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal sailings and on 10/11/1922 transferred to the Bremen - Southampton - Halifax - New York service. Her last Hamburg - Southampton - Halifax - New York sailing was on 4/5/1924 and in September 1924 she made a single Liverpool - Philadelphia (arr.29/9/1924) round voyage. She started her final voyage on 20/3/1925 when she left Liverpool for Halifax and Portland and in October of that year was scrapped at Briton Ferry.
 

SS Canopic. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.


Corinthian
The "Corinthian" of 1907 was the second ship of that name owned by the Allan Line of Liverpool. Built in 1900 by Workman, Clark & Co Ltd, Belfast, she was a 6,227 gross ton ship, length 430ft x beam 54.2ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was accommodation for 50-1st, 150-2nd and 400-3rd class passengers. Launched on 19/3/1900 she left Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Quebec and Montreal on 24/5/1900. On 23/5/1903 she transferred to the Glasgow - Quebec and Montreal service and in 1908 she was rebuilt to 7,333 tons with accommodation for 280-2nd and 900-3rd class passengers. In April 1908 she commenced her last Glasgow - Quebec - Montreal voyage and on 9/5/1908 sailed on her first run from Montreal to Quebec and London. She left London for Quebec and Montreal on 10/9/1914 and on the return voyage was used as a Canadian Expeditionary Force troopship. She later continued on the London - Canada service and in 1917 went to Canadian Pacific when they took over Allan Line. On 21/11/1918 she commenced her first voyage after the armistice from London to St John, New Brunswick but on 14th Dec. she was wrecked in the Bay of Funday with no loss of life.
 

SS Corinthian. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.


Corsican
The "Corsican" was built by Barclay, Curle & Co.Ltd, Glasgow in 1907 for the Allan Line of Liverpool. She was a 11,419 gross ton vessel, length 500.3ft x beam 61.2ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 16 knots. There was accommodation for 208-1st, 298-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Launched on 29/4/1907, she sailed on her maiden voyage from Liverpool to St John, New Brunswick on 31/10/1907. In 1908 she was chartered to Canadian Pacific and commenced sailing for them on the same service in January 1908. On 12/8/1912 she collided with an iceberg near Belle Isle and sustained slight damage and in January 1914 commenced her last Liverpool - St John, New Brunswick voyage for Canadian Pacific. On 18/4/1914 she began sailings between Glasgow, Quebec and Montreal, commencing her last voyage on 11/7/1914 and in August of that year began trooping voyages between Southampton and Havre. In September 1914 she was transferred to trooping to Alexandria and Bombay and various trooping duties and in 1917 was returned to Canadian Pacific which by that time had taken over the Allan Line. Sailings commenced on 24/8/1918 from London to Quebec and Montreal and on 30/1/1919 she resumed the Liverpool - St John, New Brunswick service and subsequently the Glasgow, London, Liverpool or Antwerp to Canada run. On 16/11/1922 she was renamed "Marvale" and her accommodation altered to Cabin and 3rd class only and on 26/4/1923 commenced her last voyage from Glasgow to Belfast, Quebec and Montreal but on 21/5/1923 she was wrecked near Cape Race with no loss of life.
 

SS Corsican.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.


Czar
The "Czar" was a 6,503 gross ton ship, built by Barclay, Curle & Co, Glasgow in 1912 for the Russian American Line. Her details were - length 425ft x beam 53.2ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. There was accommodation for 30-1st, 260-2nd and 1,086-3rd & 4th class passengers. Launched on 23/03/1912, she sailed from Libau on her maiden voyage to Copenhagen and New York on 30/05/1912. Her last voyage on this service started on 17/07/1914 and on 13/09/1914 she commenced Archangel - New York sailings. After the Russian revolution, she was transferred to British registry and placed under the management of the Cunard SS Co. and in 1921 was returned to the East Asiatic Co of Copenhagen (owners of the Russian American Line). They renamed her "Estonia" and placed her on the transatlantic service under the description of Baltic American Line. On 11/01/1921 she sailed from Glasgow for New York, Danzig and Libau, and on 23/02/1921 commenced Libau - Danzig - Boston - New York sailings. In February 1925 she was refitted to accommodate 290-cabin and 500-3rd class passengers and in March 1926 was again altered to 110-cabin, 180-tourist and 500-3rd class. Her last Danzig - Copenhagen - Halifax - New York voyage started on 31/01/1930 and she was then sold to the Polish owned Gdynia-America Line. On 13/03/1930 she started a single round voyage between Danzig, Copenhagen, Halifax and New York and was then renamed "Pulaski". She started sailing between Danzig, Halifax and New York under this name on 25/04/1930 and commenced her last North Atlantic voyage - Gdynia - Copenhagen - Halifax - New York on 18/08/1935. Transferred to the Gdynia - Buenos Aires service on 28/02/1936 and started her last voyage on this route on 21/04/1939. On 24/08/1939, just before the outbreak of WWII, she sailed from Gdynia for Falmouth and was used as a troopship during WWII, was renamed "Empire Penryn" under British registry in 1946 and was scrapped at Blyth in 1949.
 

SS Czar.  U.S. Library of Congress.

 

D -
 

Dominion
The "Dominion" of 1899 was built in 1893 by Harland & Wolff of Belfast as the "Prussia" for the German Hamburg - America Line. She was a 5965 gross ton ship, length 445.5ft x beam 50.2ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 14 knots. Accommodation for 60-1st class and 1,800-3rd class passengers. She was launched on 10/11/1893 but her completion was delayed by a strike (they even had them in those days!) and she didn't leave Hamburg on her maiden voyage to Havre and New York until 24/6/1894. She stayed on this service until her last voyage on 6/2/1898 when she was sold to the British Dominion Line and renamed "Dominion". She was rebuilt with a tonnage of 6618 tons and accommodation for 200-1st, 170-2nd, and 750-3rd class passengers and commenced sailing Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal on 7/5/1898. In 1908 she went to the American Line, was further altered to carry 370-2nd and 750-3rd class passengers and was put onto their Liverpool - Philadelphia service until May 1915. She did some intervening Dominion Line sailings and in 1918 did her first voyage after the Armistice from Liverpool - Portland on 2/12/1918. In autumn 1919 she was used as a cargo ship only and on 26/2/1921 she made her last trip from Liverpool - Portland and was scrapped in Germany in 1922.
 

SS Dominion. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.


Duchess of Bedford
The "Duchess of Bedford" was built by John Brown & Co Ltd, Glasgow in 1928 for Canadian Pacific SS Ltd. She was a 20,123 gross ton ship, length 601ft x beam 75.2ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 18 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 580-cabin, 480-tourist and 510-3rd class. Launched on 24/1/1928 by Mrs Stanley Baldwin, the wife of the British prime minister, she sailed from Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Quebec and Montreal on 1/6/1928. On her second westbound crossing, she set a new record of six days, nine and a half hours from Liverpool to Montreal. In July 1933 she was in collision with an iceberg in Belle Isle Strait, but sustained only slight damage. Five days before the declaration of war in 1939, she was chartered for a trooping voyage to Bombay, and on 5/1/1940 resumed Liverpool - St John, New Brunswick - Halifax voyages, being used on the Eastbound crossings to ferry Canadian troops to Britain. In August 1940 she commenced the first of three voyages to Suez via Freetown and Cape Town. In November 1941 she left Liverpool on a 5 month voyage which took her to Singapore with 4000 Indian troops and 40 nurses. Arriving at the end of January 1942, she embarked 875 women and children for evacuation to Batavia, Java. Although attacked on several occasions, she was not seriously damaged, and arrived at Liverpool on 2/4/1942. After two trips to Cape Town, she sailed from Liverpool for Boston on 7/8/1942 and on 9th August, sighted a U-Boat and sank her by gunfire. She was later used in the North African landings and shot down an enemy aircraft in November 1943. Later used in the Sicily and Salerno landings and various trooping voyages, and prisoner of war repatriations. On 3/3/1947 she arrived at Glasgow to be refitted to carry 400-1st and 300-tourist class passengers, her speed increased to 20 knots, and was renamed "Empress of France" in October 1947. She resumed Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal sailings on 1/9/1948 and in 1958 was fitted with new streamlined funnels and her accommodation altered to carry 218-1st and 482-tourist class passengers. She started her last Montreal - Liverpool crossing on 30/11/1960 having made 310 round voyages on the North Atlantic, and on 19/12/1960 sailed from Liverpool for Newport, Monmouthshire where she was scrapped.

 

SS Duchess of Bedford.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.

 

E -


Empress of Scotland

See entry for the "Kaiserin Auguste Victoria".

 

F -


Friedrich Der Grosse
The steamship "Friedrich Der Grosse" was built for Norddeutscher Lloyd by AGVulcan, Stettin and launched on 1/08/1896. 10.531 tons (the first German vessel over 10,000 tons); 159,4 x 18,29 meters (length x breadth); 2 funnels, 2 masts; twin-screw propulsion, quadruple- expansion engines, service speed 14.5 knots; accommodation for 216 passengers in 1st class, 227 in 2nd class, and from 1,671 to 1,964 in steerage; crew of 175 to 222. 11/11/1896, maiden voyage, Bremen-Suez Canal-Australia. 04/04/1897, first voyage, Bremen-Falmouth (to take on passengers from the Konigin Luise, whose rudder had broken)-New York. 1902, enclosed bridge added; 10,696 tons. 22/03/1903, first voyage, Naples-New York. 25/07/1912, last voyage, Genoa-Naples-New York (16 roundtrip voyages). 22/11/1913, last voyage, Bremen - New York. 21/01/1914, last voyage, Bremen-Australia (14 roundtrip voyages). 4/06/1914, first voyage, Bremen - Baltimore. 9/07/1914, last voyage, Bremen-Philadelphia- Baltimore. 3/08/1914, took refuge at the Norddeutscher Lloyd pier at Hoboken. 6/04/1917, seized by the U.S. Government; renamed "Huron" (transport). 1919, transferred to the U.S. Shipping Board; oil firing; chartered to the Munson Line, New York, for its New York-Buenos Aires service. 1/12/1921, leased to the Los Angeles Steamship Co; major rebuilding; renamed "City of Honolulu". 23/09/1922, first voyage, Los Angeles-Honolulu. 12/10/1922, on return voyage, damaged by fire 575 miles from Los Angeles; all on board taken onto the U.S. Army Transport Thomas, and the freighter West Farallon. 17/10/1922, sunk by gunfire from the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Shawnee as a threat to navigation.
 

SS Friedrick Der Grosse. U.S. Library of Congress.

 

Furst Bismark
The "Furst Bismarck" was buit by A.G.Vulcan, Stettin for the Hamburg America Line and was laid down as the "Venetia" but launched as the "Furst Bismarck". She was a 8,430 gross ton ship, length 502.6ft x beam 57.6ft, three funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 19 knots. There was accommodation for 420-1st, 172-2nd and 700-3rd class passengers. Launched on 29/11/1890, she left Hamburg on her maiden voyage to Southampton and New York on 8/5/1891. On 27/3/1894 she commenced her first voyage from Genoa to Naples and New York and continued this service during the winter months until commencing her last Naples - New York voyage on 26/1/1902. She started her last Hamburg - Southampton - New York voyage on 5/11/1903. She was sold to Russia in 1904, converted to an auxiliary cruiser and renamed "Don". In 1906 she went to the Russian Volunteer Fleet, was renamed "Moskva" and from 13/5/1907 she ran between Libau, Rotterdam and New York. She made 4 round voyages, and in 1913 was sold to the Austrian Navy who renamed her "Gaea" and used her as a depot ship. Seized by Italy at the end of the Great War, she was rebuilt and renamed "San Giusto" for the Cosulich Line. In 1921 she made one round voyage from Trieste to Naples and New York and was scrapped in Italy in 1924.

 

SS Furst Bismark.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.

 

G -


Grampian
The "Grampian" was built by A.Stephen & Sons, Glasgow in 1907 for the Allan Line. She was a 10,187 gross ton ship, length 485.7ft x beam 60.2ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 210-1st, 250-2nd and 1,000-3rd class. Launched on 25/7/1907, she sailed from Glasgow on her maiden voyage to Boston on 7/12/1907. In May 1908 she made her first voyage between Glasgow, Quebec and Montreal and on 26/11/1908 started her first Liverpool - St John, NB voyage, and made further Liverpool departures during the winter seasons. In 1910 she was rebuilt to 10,947 tons and on 29/11/1912 was chartered to Canadian Pacific and made a single round voyage between Liverpool, Halifax and St John, New Brunswick. On 15/8/1914 she commenced her last Glasgow - Quebec - Montreal voyage and on 11/9/1914 was again chartered to Canadian Pacific and sailed from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal. On the eastbound voyage she was used as a troop transport to carry part of the Canadian Expeditionary Force to Europe. In December 1914 she resumed Canadian Pacific voyages between Liverpool and St John, New Brunswick, and made the last of four round voyages when she left St John, New Brunswick on 17/4/1915 for Liverpool. In May 1915 she resumed Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal voyages for the Allan Line. In 1917 she was taken over, together with the rest of the Allan Line fleet, by Canadian Pacific and commenced her first voyage after the Armistice on 15/12/1918 when she left Liverpool for St John, New Brunswick. She subsequently sailed between Glasgow, Liverpool, London or Antwerp and Canada and started her final voyage on 15/12/1920 when she sailed from London for Antwerp and St John, New Brunswick. On 14/3/1921 she was gutted by fire while being refitted at Antwerp, was abandoned to the insurance underwriters, and in 1925 was scrapped at Hendrik Ido, Ambacht.
 

SS Grampian. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.

 

I -


Ionian
The "Ionian" was built by Workman Clark & Co Ltd, Belfast in 1901 for the Allan Line of Liverpool. Her details were - 8,268 gross tons, length 470ft x beam 57.5ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 14 knots. There was accommodation for 132-1st, 160-2nd and 800-3rd class passengers. Launched on 12/9/1901, she sailed on her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Halifax and St John, New Brunswick on 21/11/1901. On 15/5/1902 she commenced her first voyage from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal and on 27/5/1905 started her first Glasgow - Quebec - Montreal run. On 17/5/1906 she resumed the Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal service and on 20/7/1907 went back to the Glasgow - Quebec - Montreal run. In 1909 she was converted to carry 325-2nd and 800-3rd class passengers and started her first London - Quebec - Montreal voyage on 25/4/1912. Her last run on this service started on 30/7/1914 and she then went onto trooping duties to Bombay via Suez. In 1917 she went to Canadian Pacific who had taken over Allan Line, but returned to trooping in October of that year. On 21/10/1917 she was sunk by a mine laid off Milford Haven by the German submarine UC.51 with the loss of 7 lives.

 

SS Ionian.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.

 

K -


Kaiserin Auguste Victoria
The Hamburg America Line steamship "Kaiserin Auguste Victoria", was laid down by A.G. Vulcan, Stettin (ship #264), as the "Europa", and launched 29/08/1905 under the name "Kaiserin Auguste Victoria". 24,581 tons; 206 (214.9) x 23,5 meters (length x breadth); 2 funnels, 4 masts; twin-screw propulsion, quadruple-expansion engines (17,500 psi), service speed 17.5 (maximum 18) knots; accommodation for 652 passengers in 1st class, 286 in 2nd class, 216 in 3rd class, and 1,842 in steerage; crew of 593. At the time of her launch, the Kaiserin Auguste Victoria was the largest passenger ship in the world, supplanting the Amerika. 10/05/1906, maiden voyage, Hamburg-Dover-Cherbourg-New York. 23/06/1914, last voyage, Hamburg-Southampton-Cherbourg-New York-Hamburg. 1/08/1914, laid up for the duration of World War I in Hamburg. 23/03/1919, sailed for Cowes, England, where she was surrendered to the Shipping Controller on 27 March; immediately transferred to the U.S. Shipping Board for use as a troop transport. 14/02/1920 -1/01/1921, 10 roundtrip voyages, Liverpool-New York, chartered by the Cunard Line. 13/05/1921, sold to the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. 5/08/1921, renamed "Empress of Scotland"; refitted by Vulcan-Werft, Hamburg: 25,037 tons; converted to oil fuel; accommodation for 459 passengers in 1st class, 478 in 2nd class, 960 in 3rd class. 22/01/1922, first voyage, Southampton-New York-Mediterranean cruise. 22/04/1922, second voyage, Southampton-Cherbourg-Quebec. 14/06/1922, first voyage, Hamburg-Southampton-Cherbourg-Quebec. 1923, collided at Hamburg with the SS Bonus. May 1926, passenger accommodation changed to 1st class, 2nd class, tourist, and 3rd class. 1927, passenger accommodation changed to 1st class, tourist, and 3rd class. 11/10/1930, last voyage, Southampton-Cherbourg-Quebec. 2/12/1930, sold to Hughes, Bolkow & Co, Blyth. 10/12/1930, burned out and sunk in the Hughes, Bolkow yard at Blyth. May 1931, wreck raised. October 1931, scrapping completed.
 

SS Kaiserin Auguste Victoria.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.

 

Kildonan Castle
Built in 1899 by Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering Co.for the Union-Castle line. Bommenced her career as H. M. "Transport 44" for use during the Boer War. On her maiden voyage she carried 3,000 troops to Cape Town and in December 1900 was used as a prisoner of war ship at Simonstown. During 1901 she returned to Fairfields for completion before undertaking her first commercial mail sailing on 07/12/1901. At the end 1920 she was refurbished and returned to the mail run. In January 1930 she was deployed on the intermediate run until May when she was laid up at Netley pending disposal. In May 1931 she was sold and broken up in Norway

 

SS Kildonan Castle.  Courtesy Roll of Honour www.roll-of-honour.com.

 

L -


La Bourdonnais
Built as the "Scharnhorst" it was 8131 gross tons, speed 14 knots, built 1904 by Tecklenborg, Geestemunde for North German Lloyd. Designed for Far Eastern / Australian routes, she made her first sailing in September 1904 from Bremen to Southampton, Suez, Freemantle, Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. 13/04/1914 last sailing Southampton to Sydney. 1919 taken over by the French Government and 1921 sold to the French Line and renamed "La Bourdonnais". 1934 scrapped Genoa.

La Bretagne
The "La Bretagne" was built in 1885 by CGT, St Nazaire for Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line). She was a 7112 gross ton vessel, length 495.4ft x beam 51.8ft, two funnels, four masts, single screw and a speed of 17 knots. Accommodation for 390-1st, 65-2nd, and 600-3rd class passengers. Launched on 9/9/1885 she sailed from Havre on her maiden voyage to New York on 14/8/1886. In 1895 she was rebuilt with quadruple expansion engines, two masts and 3rd class accommodation increased to 1,500. On 8/6/1912 she left Havre on her last voyage to New York and then went to the French company, Cie Sud Atlantique. In 1919 she was renamed "Alesia" and in December 1923 she was sold for scrap in Holland, but broke her tow near Texel island and ran aground to become a total loss.
 

SS La Bretagne.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.


Lake Champlain
The "Lake Champlain" was built by Barclay, Curle & Co,Ltd, Glasgow in 1900 for Elder Dempster's Beaver Line. She was a 7,392 gross ton ship, length 446ft x beam 52ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 13 knots. Accommodation was provided for 100-1st, 80-2nd and 500-3rd class passengers. Launched on 31/3/1900, she sailed on 15/5/1900 from Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Quebec and Montreal. On 21/5/1901, she was the first merchant ship to be fitted with permanent wireless telegraphy apparatus and on 6/4/1903 was taken over with the rest of Beaver Line's fleet by Canadian Pacific. In 1906 her accommodation was modified to carry 150-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers and on 7/3/1913 she was renamed "Ruthenia". She commenced sailings between Trieste and St John, NB on 20/3/1913 and completed 5.5 round voyages on this service, the last starting in Jan 1914. On 4/2/1914 she left St John, New Brunswick for London and in September 1914 commenced her last London - Quebec - Montreal voyage. She arrived at Belfast in Nov 1914 and was converted into a dummy of the battleship HMS King George V. In summer 1915 she became a store ship and in 1916 was used as a naval oiler. In 1929 she became an oil hulk at Singapore and in 1942 was captured by the Japanese and renamed "Choran Maru". Recaptured by Allied forces in 1945, she stranded in the Moesi River in 1946, was refloated and towed to the Clyde. Arriving there on 18/6/1949, she was broken up at Dalmuir.
 

SS Lake Champlain.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.


Lake Erie
The "Lake Erie" was built by Barclay, Curle & Co Ltd, Glasgow in 1899 for Elder Dempster. She was a 7,550 gross ton ship, length 446ft x beam 52ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 13 knots. There was accommodation for 100-1st, 80-2nd and 500-3rd class passengers. Launched on 21/11/1899, she left Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Cape Town on 30/1/1900 as a Boer War transport and made 8 round voyages on this route. On 24/6/1902 she commenced her first voyage from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal and in 1903 was acquired by Canadian Pacific together with the Canadian interests of the Elder Dempster Line. She commenced Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal sailings for her new owners on 28/4/1903 and in 1906 was refitted to carry 150-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. In 1910 she was chartered to the Allen Line and commenced London - Quebec - Montreal voyages on 14/5/1910. She made 25 round voyages for the Allen Line, the last one commencing 6/2/1913 when she left St John, NB for London. In 1913 she was renamed "Tyrolia" for Canadian Pacific and in April of that year started sailings from Trieste to Quebec and Montreal. She commenced her last voyage on this service in February 1914 when she left Trieste for St John, New Brunswick and on 28/2/1914 sailed from St John for Liverpool. In August 1914 she commenced her last London - Quebec - Montreal voyage and on 28/10/1914 was converted to the dummy battleship - HMS "Centurion". She later became a troop transport and then a store ship. In 1916 she was fitted with tanks, converted to a naval oiler and was renamed "Saxol". On 7/10/1916 she went to Lane & MacAndrew Ltd and was renamed "Aspenleaf". Transferred to the Shipping Controller on 7/11/1917 and on 12/9/1919 was sold to the Anglo Saxon Petroleum Co (Shell Oil). Renamed "Prygona" on 11/1/1921 and was sold to Petersen & Albeck, Copenhagen on 6/2/1925 for scrap.
 

SS Lake Erie.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.


Lake Huron
4,040 gross tons, length 385ft x beam 42.8ft, one funnel, three masts, iron hull, single screw, speed 11 knots, accommodation for 70-1st, 50-2nd and 900-3rd class passengers. Built by the London & Glasgow Co, Glasgow, she was launched for the Canada Shipping Co (Beaver Line) on 10/09/1881. Her maiden voyage started 9/11/1881 when she left Liverpool for New York (first NY sailing of the company) and on 27/04/1882 she started her first Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal sailing. Her last voyage on this service started 22/10/1898 and in December 1898 she made a Batum - Halifax sailing to take the Doukhobors from Russia to Canada. She resumed Liverpool - Canada sailings on 15/07/1899 under the ownership of Beaver Line of Steamers (Elder Dempster & Co) who had taken over the company, and commenced her final voyage on 18/10/1900. She was scrapped at Genoa the following year.
 

SS Lake Huron. Courtesy John Kalmakov http://members.shaw.ca/kalmakov/.


Lake Ontario
The "Lake Ontario" was a 4502 gross ton ship, length 374.5ft x beam 43.5ft, clipper bows, two funnels, three masts, single screw, speed 12 knots. Accommodation for 200- 1st, 85-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Built by J. Laing, Sunderland (engines by G. Clark, Sunderland), she was launched for the Beaver Line on 10/03/1887 and her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal started 10/06/1887. In August 1896 she collided with Dominion Line's Vancouver in the St. Lawrence River, and in January 1898 collided with Wilson Line's Hindoo in the Atlantic, both times receiving only slight damage. In March 1899 the company became Beaver Line of Steamers (Elder Dempster & Co), and continued Liverpool - Canada sailings until starting her last voyage Liverpool - St. John, New Brunswick on 28/03/1903. In 1905 she was scrapped in Italy.
 

SS Lake Ontario.  Courtesy The ShipsList www.theshipslist.com.


Lake Superior
4,562 gross tons, length 400ft x beam 44.2ft, one funnel, three masts, iron hull, single screw and a speed of 11 knots. Accommodation for 190-1st, 80-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Built by J & G. Thomson, Glasgow, she was launched for the Beaver Line on 4/12/1884. Her maiden voyage started on 7/05/1885 when she left Liverpool for Quebec and Montreal. In July 1894 she sustained slight damage when she collided with an iceberg in Belle Isle Strait and commenced her last sailing on 29/101898 between Liverpool, Quebec and Montreal. The company went into liquidation in 1899 and resumed service later the same year as the Beaver Line of Steamers (Elder Dempster & Co). In April 1899 she sailed from Batum to Halifax to take the Doukhobors from Russia to Canada and then resumed Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal sailings on 3/06/1899. Her final voyage from Liverpool for St John, NB started on 18/03/1902 and she was wrecked near St John, New Brunswick on the homeward voyage on 31/03/1902 with no loss of life. She was later salvaged and scrapped where she lay.
 

SS Lake Superior. Courtesy John Kalmakov http://members.shaw.ca/kalmakov/.


La Savoie
The "La Savoie" was built for Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line) by CGT, St Nazaire in 1900. She was a 11,168 gross ton ship, length 563.1ft x beam 60ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 20 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 437-1st, 118-2nd and 398-3rd class. Launched on 31/03/1900, she sailed from Havre on 31/08/1901 on her maiden voyage to New York and took approx 6.5 days for the crossing. She continued this service until starting her last voyage on 18/07/1914. Fitted as an Armed Merchant Cruiser, she was employed in general patrol and trooping work until January 1915 when she joined the French Mediterranean Fleet. Used as an Armed Transport, she landed troops in the Dardanelles and Eastern Mediterranean operations and was damaged by Turkish shore batteries. In 1916 she evacuated part of the Serbian army to Corfu and returned to Toulon for extensive repairs. This appears to have ended her war service, but it wasn't until 1919 that she was returned to her owners. She resumed Havre - New York sailings on 26/04/1919 and in March 1923 was refitted to carry 430-cabin and 613-3rd class passengers. On 24/09/1927 she commenced her last Havre - New York - Havre voyage and was then sold and scrapped at Dunkirk the following year. In the 21 years she spent on the North Atlantic route, she made 446 crossings, carrying a total of 275,000 passengers and steaming 1,382,000 miles.
 

SS La Savoie.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.


Laurentic
Built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast in 1908 as the "Alberta" but launched as the "Laurentic" 14,892 gross tons, length 550.4ft x beam 67.3ft, one funnel, two masts, three screws and a speed of 16 knots. Accommodation for 230-1st, 430-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Maiden voyage 29/4/1909 from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal, on 13/9/1914 she was commissioned at Montreal as a transport for the Canadian Expeditionary Force. On 23/1/1917 she was sunk off Northern Ireland by a mine laid by the German submarine U.80 with the loss of 354 lives. After the Great War most of the UKP5 million bullion she was carrying was recovered.
 

SS Laurentic.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.


Le Douro
This Messenger Maritimes steamship was commissioned on 16/12/1889 in Siota. It was 2700 gross tons, length 111 metres, three screws and two boilers. Accomodations for 31-36 passengers (it was a passenger and freight vessel). It commenced a new run from London to Le Havre. In 1895, it commenced a delivery run to Madagascar. In August 1898, she made a Batum - Lancara sailing to take the Doukhobors from Russia to Cyprus. In 1903, it commenced a run to Mediterranean sea and Black sea ports and after 1908, to Indochina. It was then placed on a run to Madagascar where it was cast ashore and lost in Farafangana 12/5/1910.
 

SS Le Douro.  Courtesy Philippe Ramona  http://www.es-conseil.fr/pramona/e1mm.htm.

 

M -


Mauretania
The "Mauretania" was built by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, Wallsend-on-Tyne (engines by Wallsend Slipway Co) in 1906 for the Cunard Line. She was a 31,938 gross ton ship, overall length 790ft x beam 88ft, four funnels, two masts, four screws and a service speed of 25 knots. There was accommodation for 563-1st, 464-2nd and 1,138-3rd class passengers. Launched on 20/9/1906, she left Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Queenstown (Cobh) and New York on 16/11/1907. Between 1907 and 1924 she broke several transatlantic records, and started her last pre-war Liverpool - New York voyage on 10/10/1914. Converted to a troopship, hospital ship and then back to a troopship between 1915 and 1919, she made her first Liverpool - New York voyage after the Armistice on 25/11/1918 (still as a troopship). After being refitted as a passenger liner, she commenced Southampton - Halifax - New York voyages on 28/6/1919. Damaged by fire at Southampton on 25/7/1921, she was rebuilt to 30,696 tons, converted from coal to oil fuel, and refitted to carry 589-1st, 400-2nd and 767-3rd class passengers. She resumed Southampton - Cherbourg - New York sailings on 25/3/1922 and in April 1931 was refitted to carry 1st, tourist and 3rd class passengers. She commenced her last Southampton - Cherbourg - New York voyage on 30/6/1934 and then carried out five cruises from New York. Her last New York - Southampton crossing started on 26/9/1934, and on 1/7/1935 she left Southampton for Rosyth, where she was scrapped.
 

SS Mauretania.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.


Megantic
The "Megantic" was built by Harland & Wolff, Belfast in 1908. Originally laid down as the "Albany" for the Dominion Line, she was purchased on the stocks by White Star Line and launched as the "Megantic". This was a 14,878 gross ton ship, length 550.4ft x beam 67.3ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 16 knots. There was accommodation for 230-1st, 430-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Launched on 10/12/1908, she sailed from Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Quebec and Montreal on 17/06/1909. On 30/11/1914 she started her first Liverpool - New York voyage and commenced her last sailing on this route on 21/04/1915. On 6/04/1917 she came under the liner requisition scheme and was used for government wartime services. In April 1918 she resumed Liverpool - New York sailings and started her last voyage on this service on 1/04/1919. Refitted to accommodate 325-1st, 260-2nd and 550-3rd class passengers, she resumed Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal voyages in May 1919. On 9/01/1920 she sailed Liverpool - Sydney for the British government and in May 1924 she became cabin and 3rd class only. She made one voyage to China as a troop transport in 1927 and in March 1928 became cabin, tourist and 3rd class. On 22/03/1928 she sailed London - Havre - Southampton - Halifax - New York and on 19/04/1928 commenced her first London - Havre - Southampton - Quebec - Montreal voyage. Her last voyage on this service started on 16/05/1931 and she was then laid up at Rothesay, Scotland. In February 1933 she sailed to Osaka, Japan where she was scrapped.
 

SS Megantic.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.


Montclare
The "Montclare" was built by John Brown & Co.Ltd, Glasgow in 1922 for Canadian Pacific Steamships Ltd. She was a 16,314 gross ton vessel, length 549.5ft x beam 70.2ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 16 knots. There was accommodation for 542-cabin class and 1,268-3rd class passengers. She was laid down as the "Metapedia" but launched on 18/12/1921 as the "Montclare". On 18/8/1922 she left Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Quebec and Montreal. In 1928, her accommodation was altered to cabin, tourist and 3rd class and her engines rebuilt in 1929. On 22/3/1929 she commenced an Antwerp - Southampton - St.John, New Brunswick. Service and on 17/4/1929 an Antwerp - Southampton - Quebec - Montreal service. On 20/3/1930 she made her first voyage Hamburg - Southampton - Cherbourg - St John, New Brunswick. and commenced her last voyage Hamburg - Southampton - Cherbourg - Quebec - Montreal on 9/11/1933. Between 1932 - 1939 she carried out 48 pleasure cruises, but some North Atlantic voyages from Hamburg, Antwerp, Southampton or Liverpool. In Jan.1939 she was rebuilt to carry cabin and 3rd class only and commenced her last North Atlantic voyage on 21/7/1939 from Liverpool to Greenock, Belfast, Quebec, Montreal and Liverpool. On 28/8/1939 she was converted to an Armed Merchant Cruiser and named HMS Montclare and on 2/6/1942 was sold to the British Admiralty. In 1946 she was used as a submarine depot ship, and in 1954 was towed to Gareloch. In 1955 she was towed to Portsmouth and in Jan.1958 was sold and scrapped at Inverkeithing.
 

SS Montclare.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.


Montezuma
The "Montezuma" was a 7,345 gross ton ship, length 485ft x beam 59ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw, speed 13 knots. Built by A. Stephen & Sons, Glasgow, she was launched as a cargo steamer with limited passenger accommodation for Elder Dempster & Co on 11th Jul.1899. Her maiden voyage started 12/09/1899 when she left Greenock for New Orleans and on 22/10/1899 left New Oreleans on the first of 8 voyages as a Boer War transport. (probably transporting mules or horses). On 20/08/1902 she commenced a single round voyage between London and Montreal and in October 1902 sailed between Avonmouth and New Orleans. Transferred to Canadian Pacific when they purchased Elder Dempster's Canadian services in 1903, she was fitted with accommodation for 1,000-3rd class passengers and started her first London - Antwerp - St John, New Brunswick voyage in March 1904. On 8/05/1904 she commenced her first London - Antwerp - Quebec - Montreal sailing and in 1914 was taken over by the Admiralty and converted into a dummy of the battleship HMS "Iron Duke". On 7/07/1915 she was purchased by the Admiralty, renamed "Abadol" and used as a naval oiler. In 1917 she went to Lane & MacAndrew as the "Oakleaf" and on 25th July 1917 was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine UC.41 while 64 miles from the Butt of Lewis, Scotland.
 

SS Montezuma.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.


Montfort
The "Montfort" was built in 1899 by Palmers Co Ltd, Jarrow-on-Tyne for Elder Dempster's Beaver Line. She was a 5,519 gross ton ship, length 445ft x beam 52.2ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 13 knots. Built primarily as a cargo vessel, she had accommodation for only 12-1st class passengers. Launched on 13/2/1899, she sailed from the Tyne on her maiden voyage to Quebec and Montreal on 26/4/1899. In May 1899 she made her first of four Avonmouth - Montreal passages. She was transferred to trooping duties for the Boer War and commenced her first of three Liverpool - Capetown voyages on 11/11/1899. She also made one round voyage from each of Halifax, New Orleans and Fiume to Capetown. In 1900 she was refitted to carry 30-1st class and 1,200-3rd class passengers and her tonnage increased to 7,087 tons. Her first passenger voyage between Liverpool, Quebec and Montreal commenced on 17/7/1900 and she received several refits to various tonnages between 1901-1903. In 1903, the "Montfort" went to Canadian Pacific together with the rest of Beaver Line's Canadian fleet and her accommodation was altered to carry 30-2nd and 1,200-3rd class passengers. The following year the company switched its service from Avonmouth to London/Antwerp to Canada and on the eastbound journey, the third class berths were frequently dismantled in Montreal and replaced with portable stalls to carry upwards of 1,200 head of cattle to London. In 1909, she was again rebuilt to 6,578 tons and on 1/10/1918 was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.55, 170 miles from Bishops Rock, Sicily Islands, with the loss of 5 lives.
 

SS Montfort. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.

 

Montnairn

This was a 17,082 gross ton vessel built by J.C.Tecklenborg, Geestemunde in 1907. Her details were - length 590.1ft x beam 68.3ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 17 knots. There was accommodation for 416-1st, 338-2nd and 1,726-3rd class passengers. Laid down as the "Washington" she was launched as the "Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm" on 21/10/1907. She sailed from Bremen on her maiden voyage to Southampton, Cherbourg and New York on 06/06/1908 and commenced her last voyage on this service on 13/06/1914. In August 1914, on the outbreak of the Great War, she took refuge at Odda, Norway during a pleasure cruise, and on 31/3/1919 surrendered to Britain, who chartered her to the US Navy Dept. In 1920 she was chartered to Canadian Pacific who used her on the Liverpool - Quebec service, starting on 14/07/1920. In 1921 she was bought outright by Canadian Pacific from the Reparations Commission and reconditioned at Glasgow. On 02/08/1921 she was renamed "Empress of China" but never sailed as such, and later that month was again renamed "Empress of India". On 25/08/1921 she was chartered to Cunard and completed two Southampton - New York voyages for them and was then returned to Canadian Pacific. On 23/06/1922 she commenced the first of two Liverpool - Quebec voyages and on 21/08/1922 started a single Southampton - Cherbourg - Quebec voyage. She was renamed "Montlaurier" and rebuilt to carry Cabin class and 3rd class passengers and on 04/05/1923 sailed from Liverpool for Quebec but returned due to boiler trouble, and finally sailed on 29/06/1923. She commenced her last voyage Liverpool - St John, NB on 24/01/1925 and sailed from St John on 22/02/1925 but had steering gear trouble off Fastnet and returned to Queenstown and was then towed to Liverpool. On 14/04/1925 she was damaged by fire when under repair by Cammel Laird, but was repaired and on 18/06/1925 was renamed "Monteith" but never sailed under this name. On 02/07/1925 she was again renamed as "Montnairn" and from 17/07/1925 sailed between Liverpool and Quebec. In July 1926 she was converted to cabin, tourist and 3rd class and on 04/05/1927 commenced her first voyage Antwerp - Southampton - Quebec. On 16/09/1928 she commenced her final sailing from Hamburg to Southampton, Cherbourg and Quebec and was then laid up at Southampton. On 23/12/1929 she was sold and scrapped at Genoa.

 

SS Montnairn.

 

Montrose

16,403 gross tons, length 548.7ft x beam 70.2ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw, speed 16 knots, accommodation for 542-cabin and 1,268-3rd class passengers. Launched on 14/12/1920 by Fairfield Co, Glasgow for Canadian Pacific SS Co., she started her maiden voyage on 05/05/1922 from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal. In 1928 her accommodation was altered to cabin, tourist and 3rd class and on 18/07/1928 she started her first voyage Antwerp - Southampton - Quebec - Montreal. 29/05/1929 first voyage Hamburg - Southampton - Cherbourg - Quebec - Montreal and on 06/06/1933 commenced her 11th and last voyage on this route. Between 1932 and 1932 she made 46 pleasure cruises as well as some North Atlantic voyages from Hamburg, Antwerp, Southampton or Liverpool. She started her last Liverpool - Belfast - Greenock - Quebec - Montreal - Liverpool voyage on 25/08/1939 and was then converted to the Armed Merchant Cruiser HMS "Forfar". On 02/12/1940 she was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.99 off the West coast of Ireland with the loss of 172 lives.

 

SS Montrose.


Mount Temple
8,790 gross tons, length 485ft x beam 59ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 13 knots. Built by Sir W.G.Armstrong, Whitworth & Co, Walker-on-Tyne (engines by Wallsend Slipway Co), she was launched for Elder Dempster's Beaver Line on 18/06/1901. Her maiden voyage started on 19/09/1901 when she left the Tyne for New Orleans and 4/11/1901 she sailed from New Orleans on the first of two voyages as a Boer War transport, probably with horses or mules. She subsequently sailed between the UK and New Orleans until 1903 when she passed to Canadian Pacific. Fitted with accommodation for 14-2nd and 1,250-3rd class passengers, she sailed on her first Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal voyage on 17/05/1903. She made six round voyages on this service and on 27/03/1904 commenced her first London - Antwerp - St John, New Brunswick sailing. On 1/12/1907 she stranded on West Ironbound Island, Nova Scotia and 600 passengers and crew were rescued by breeches buoy. Refloated on 16/04/1908 and on 6/12/1916 she was captured and sunk by the German raider Moewe while 620 miles from Fastnet.
 

SS Amerika. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.

 

P -
 

Paris
34,569 gross tons, overall length 764.3ft x beam 85.3ft, three funnels, two masts, quadruple screw and a speed of 21 knots. There was accommodation for 565-1st, 480-2nd and 1,100-3rd class passengers. Built by Chantiers & Ateliers de St Nazaire, St Nazaire for Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line). Her keel was laid in 1913, but due to wartime conditions, she wasn't launched until 12/09/1916 and work was then suspended and she was towed to Quiberon Bay. She wasn't commissioned until 1921 and commenced her maiden voyage from Havre to New York on 15/06/1921. In August 1929 she was damaged by fire at Havre and resumed the Havre - Plymouth - New York service on 15/01/1930. In May 1932 her accommodation was re-classified as 1st, tourist and 3rd class, and she commenced her last Havre - Southampton - New York sailing on 31/03/1939. On 19/04/1939 she caught fire at her berth in Havre, capsized and sank. Her wreck was disposed of after World War II.

 

SS Paris.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.

 

Pisa
The "Pisa" was a 4,967 gross ton ship, built by A.Stephen & Sons, Glasgow in 1896 for the Sloman Line. Her details were - length 389.1ft x beam 46.1ft, one funnel, two masts, single screw and a speed of 12 knots. Accommodation was provided for 40-1st and 1,200-3rd class passengers. Launched on 24/11/1896, she sailed from Hamburg on her maiden voyage to New York on 20/5/1897. In 1903 she was chartered by Hamburg America Line and commenced Hamburg - New York sailings for this company on 4/11/1903. On 5/1/1904 she started a single round voyage between Odessa, Constantinope, Smyrna, Piraeus and New York and on 9/1/1907 was purchased by Hamburg America Line. She resumed Hamburg - New York sailings on 14/2/1907 and on 14/4/1911 started her first Hamburg - Quebec - Montreal voyage. On 29/8/1913 she commenced her last voyage on this service, and on 11/4/1914 started her last Hamburg - New York sailing. On 22/6/1914 she sailed from Batum for Constantinople, Smyrna, Piraeus and New York (arr. 22/7/1914) and took refuge there until April 1917 when she was seized by the US Authorities. She then became the US Government ship "Ascutney" until 1934 when she was scrapped at Boston, Mass.

Prinz Adalbert
She was built in 1902 by Bremer Vulkan, Vegesack for the Hamburg America Line. Dimensions were 6030 gross tons, length 403.3ft x beam 49.2ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw, speed 13 knots. There appears to be a discrepancy between North Atlantic Seaway by Bonsor and Merchant Fleets in Profile, vol.4 by Duncan Haws. Bonsor states that she carried 60 1st class and 1200 3rd class passengers. Maiden voyage 1903 Hamburg - Brazil, 1904 Genoa - Naples - New York, 1909 Hamburg - Quebec - Montreal, 1910 Hamburg - Philadelphia until 1914. Duncan Haws says 120 1st, 50 2nd and 300 3rd class passengers. Built for Far East service, 1904 transferred to West Indies route when Norddeutscher Lloyd took over the Far East passenger service, until 1914. Both accounts agree after 1914 when she was seized at Falmouth by Britain and was operated by the Admiralty. Renamed "Princetown" in 1916. Transferred to France in 1917 and renamed "Alesia". Torpedoed and sunk 6/9/1917 by German submarine UC-50 off Ushant. 
 

R -

 

Regina

The Regina was built by Harland & Wolff, Glasgow in 1917 and was a 16,313 gross ton ship, length 574.4ft x beam 67.8ft, completed as a cargo steamer with one funnel and one mast, triple screw and a speed of 15 knots. Launched on 19/04/1917 for the Dominion Line, she went to Harland & Wolff, Belfast in August 1920 for completion as a passenger vessel. Here she was fitted with two funnels, two masts, an upper promenade deck, and accommodation for 600-cabin and 1,700-3rd class passengers. On 16/03/1922 she started her first voyage between Liverpool, Halifax and Portland and on 29/04/1922 her first between Liverpool, Quebec and Montreal. She commenced her last voyage on this service on 06/11/1925 and on 12/12/1925 started her first Liverpool - Halifax - New York voyage under charter to White Star Line. In June 1926 she was converted to Cabin, tourist and 3rd class accommodation and on 01/11/1929 commenced her last Liverpool - Belfast - Glasgow - Quebec - Montreal voyage for White Star. In 1929 she was sold to Red Star Line of Antwerp, renamed "Westernland" and commenced Antwerp - Southampton - Cherbourg - New York voyages on 10/01/1930 with tourist and 3rd class passengers. On 30/11/1934 she started her last Antwerp - Havre - Southampton - New York - Havre - London - Antwerp voyage and in 1935 went to Bernstein Red Star Line of Hamburg. Converted to carry 486-tourist class passengers, she commenced Antwerp - Southampton - New York sailings on 29/03/1935 and started her last voyage on this service on 06/05/1939. In 1939 she was sold to Holland America Line and in June of that year resumed Antwerp - Southampton - New York sailings. She started her last passenger voyage on 10/05/1940 when she left Antwerp for New York and in November 1942 was bought by the British Admiralty and used as a repair ship. She was scrapped at Blyth in 1947.

 

SS Regina.  Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.

 

Rousillon
The "Roussillon" was built by AG Weser, Bremen in 1906 as the "Goeben" for North German Lloyd of Bremen. She was a 8,800 gross ton ship, length 462.1ft x beam 57.6ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 14 knots. There was accommodation for 281-cabin class and 1,333-3rd class passengers. Launched on 11/12/1906, she sailed on NGL's Far East service until June 1911 when she made her first Bremen - Southampton - Suez - Fremantle - Adelaide and Sydney voyage. She made a second round voyage on this route and then reverted to the Far East service. In August 1914, at the outbreak of the Great War, she was interned at Vigo and in 1919 was transferred to French ownership, renamed "Roussillon" and came under the control of Compagnie Generale Transatlantique (French Line). On 28/9/1920 she started her first Marseilles - New York voyage and on 3/12/1920 commenced Havre - New York sailings. Her last voyage on this service started on 18/9/1923 and on 1/11/1923 she transferred to Bordeaux - New York voyages. Her final Bordeaux - New York sailing took place on 24/8/1930 and in February 1931 she was scrapped at Pasajes, Spain.
 

SS Rousillon.  Courtesy Philippe Ramona  http://www.es-conseil.fr/pramona/e1mm.htm.


Royal Edward
The "Royal Edward" was a 11,117 gross ton ship, length 526.1ft x beam 60.2ft, two funnels, two masts, three screws, speed 19 knots, accommodation for 344-1st, 210-2nd and 560-3rd class passengers. Built by Fairfield & Co, Glasgow, she was launched in July 1907 as the "Cairo" for the short lived, British owned Egyptian Mail Line. Sold to the Canadian Northern S.S.Co in 1910, she was renamed "Royal Edward" and from May 1910 to September 1914 was used on the Avonmouth - Quebec / Montreal route in summer and Halifax in winter. Taken over as a troopship in 1914, she was torpedoed and sunk in the Aegean Sea on 13/08/1915 while 6 miles west from Kandeliusa by the German Submarine UB.14. She had been sailing from Avonmouth and Alexandria to Mudros with a cargo of government stores. There were 132 lives lost including the Master.
 

SS Royal Edward.  Courtesy The ShipsList www.theshipslist.com.


Royal George
The "Royal George" was an 11,146 gross ton ship, built by Fairfield Co Ltd, Glasgow in 1907 as the "Heliopolis" for the British owned Egyptian Mail Co. Her details were - length 525.8ft x beam 60.2ft, two funnels, two masts, triple screw and a service speed of 19 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 344-1st, 210-2nd and 560-3rd class. Launched on 28/05/1907 she was used on the Marseilles - Alexandria service, but was found to be unprofitable and was laid up in Marseilles in 1909 and offered for sale. In 1910 she was purchased by Canadian Northern Steamships of Toronto and renamed "Royal George". Refitted for North Atlantic service, she commenced Avonmouth - Quebec - Montreal sailings on 26/05/1910. On 6/11/1912 she stranded near Quebec, was refloated and sailed for Halifax for further repairs on 12th December and then proceeded to Liverpool. She resumed Avonmouth - Quebec - Montreal voyages on 17/06/1913. On 3/10/1914 she sailed from Gaspe Bay for Plymouth with part of the Canadian Expeditionary Force and was then taken over as a British troopship. The fleet was purchased by Cunard SS Co in 1916, but the "Royal George" continued trooping for the rest of the war. She resumed passenger voyages on 10/02/1919 when she started the first of five Liverpool - Halifax - New York sailings and started her first Southampton - Halifax - New York voyage on 15/08/1919. Her ninth and last voyage on this service commenced 10/06/1920 and she was then used as an emigrant depot ship at Cherbourg. In 1922 she was scrapped at Wilmhelmshaven.
 

SS Royal George. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.

 

S -
 

St. Louis
The "St. Louis" was an 11,629 gross ton ship, built by W.Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia in 1894 for the American Line. Her sister ship was the "St. Paul". Her details were - length 535.5ft x beam 63ft, straight stem, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 19 knots. There was accommodation for 350-1st, 220-2nd and 800-3rd class passengers. Launched on 12/11/1894, she sailed from New York on her maiden voyage to Southampton on 5/6/1895. She started her last Southampton - New York crossing on 16/4/1898 before being used as an auxiliary cruiser for use in the Spanish-American war. On 12/10/1898 she resumed New York - Southampton sailings and in 1903 was fitted with new boilers and had her funnels heightened. In 1913 she was refitted to carry 2nd and 3rd class passengers only and on 15/7/1914 sailed on her last Southampton - Cherbourg - Queenstown - New York voyage. Transferred to the New York - Liverpool service on 31/7/1914 until April 1918 when she commenced her last Liverpool - New York crossing, she then became the US government ship "Louisville". On 9/1/1920 she was damaged by fire while being refitted for the New York - Southampton service, and was sold as an exhibition ship but not used as such. On 20/5/1924 she left New York under tow for Genoa where she was scrapped.
 

SS St. Louis. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.


Sarmatian
The "Sarmatian" was built by R.Steele & Co of Greenock, Scotland in 1871 for the Allan Line. She was a 3647 gross ton vessel, length 370.9ft x beam 42.2ft, one funnel, three masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 13 knots. She had accommodation for 100-1st, and 850-3rd class passengers. Launched on 7/3/1871, she sailed from Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Quebec and Montreal on 31/8/1871. In 1874 she was chartered as a troopship for the Ashanti Expedition and on 3/1/1889 commenced her last voyage from Liverpool to Halifax and Portland. On 21/6/1889 she transferred to the Glasgow - Quebec - Montreal service until 1903. [In 1900 her passenger accommodation was altered to 2nd and 3rd class only.] On 3/6/1903 she commenced running from Glasgow to Boston and on 22/4/1904 commenced the London - Quebec - Montreal run. On 20/7/1907 she left Boston on her last voyage to Glasgow and in 1908 was scrapped at Rotterdam.

Southwark
The "Southwark" was a 8,607 gross ton vessel built in 1893 by Wm.Denny & Bros, Dumbarton for the American Line. Her details were - length 480ft x beam 57.2ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 14 knots. There was accommodation for 100-2nd and 929-3rd class passengers. Launched on 4/7/1893, she sailed from Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Philadelphia on 28/12/1893. In 1895 she went to the Red Star Line and commenced her first voyage from Philadelphia to New York and Antwerp on 8/8/1895. On 31/8/1895 she commenced her first Antwerp - New York run and in 1899 (or earlier) her 2nd class accommodation was increased to 250. She sailed on her last voyage on the Antwerp - New York on 21/3/1903 and was then chartered to the Dominion Line and commenced running for their Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal service on 13/5/1903. In May 1910 she was chartered to the Allan Line and ran between Glasgow, Quebec and Montreal. On 9/7/1910 she commenced her last Montreal - Quebec - Glasgow sailing (2 round voyages) and went back to the Dominion Line. In May 1911 she made her last Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal sailing and was scrapped the same year.
 

SS Southwark. U.S. Library of Congress.


Stuttgart
The "Stuttgart" was built by Vulcan Werke, Stettin in 1923 for North German Lloyd of Bremen, this was a 13,367 gross ton ship, length 537ft x beam 65ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 15 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 171-1st, 338-2nd and 594-3rd class. Launched on 31/7/1923, she sailed from Bremen on her maiden voyage to New York on 15/1/1924. In November 1927, she was refitted to carry cabin class, tourist 3rd cabin and 3rd class passengers. She made her last Bremen - New York (dep. 26/9/1937) - Bremen voyage in September 1937. In 1938 she was sold to the German Labour Front and was used for "Strength through Joy" cruising with accommodation for 990-single class passengers. Converted to a German Naval Hospital Ship in 1939, she was bombed in Gdynia on 09/10/1943 while filled with wounded German soldiers. She was towed to the outer harbour and deliberately sunk with considerable loss of life.

 

SS Stuttgart. Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.

 

Suffren
The "Blucher" was built by Blohm & Voss, Hamburg in 1901 for the Hamburg America Line. She was a 12,334 gross ton ship, length 525.6ft x beam 62.3ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 16 knots. There was accommodation for 390-1st, 230-2nd and 1,550-3rd class passengers. Launched on 23/11/1901, she sailed from Hamburg on her maiden voyage to Boulogne, Southampton and New York on 7/6/1902. Her last voyage on this service commenced on 30/12/1911 and she was subsequently used on the Hamburg to South America route. In August 1914 she was interned at Pernambuco, Brazil and on 1/6/1917 was seized by the Brazilian authorities, who renamed her "Leopoldina". On 11/3/1920 she was chartered to the French company, Compagnie Generale Transatlantique and started her first sailing between New York and Havre. Her passenger accommodation was refitted in December 1920 to carry 500-cabin class and 250-3rd class and she was renamed "Suffren". On 9/5/1923 she commenced Havre - New York sailings and continued on this service until her last round voyage commenced when she left Havre on 22/9/1928. She was then laid up and in 1929 was scrapped at Genoa.
 

T -
 

Teutonic
The "Teutonic" was a 9,984 gross ton ship, built in 1889 by Harland & Wolff, Belfast for the White Star Line. Her details were - length 565.8ft x beam 57.8ft, two funnels, three masts, twin screw and a speed of 19 knots. There was passenger accommodation for 300-1st, 190-2nd and 1,000-3rd class. Launched on 19/01/1889, she sailed from Liverpool for Spithead on 1st August to take part in the Naval Review, and was the first Armed Merchant Cruiser. On 7/08/1889 she commenced her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Queenstown (Cobh) and New York. In August 1891 she made a record passage of 5 days 16 hrs 31mins between Queenstown and Sandy Hook, and commenced her last Liverpool - Queenstown - New York voyage on 15/05/1907. On 12/06/1907 she started Southampton - Cherbourg - New York sailings and commenced her last voyage on this service on 19/04/1911. Transferred to the Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal service on 13/05/1911 with accommodation for 550-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. On 20/09/1914 she was requisitioned as an Armed Merchant Cruiser and served with the 10th Cruiser Squadron. On 16/08/1915 she was purchased by the British Admiralty and became a troopship in 1918. Laid up at Cowes, Isle of Wight in 1921 and was scrapped later the same year at Emden
 

SS Teutonic.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.


Tunisian
The "Tunisian" was a 10,576 gross ton ship built by A.Stephen & Sons, Glasgow in 1900 for the Allan Line. Her details were - length 500.6ft x beam 59.2ft, one funnel, two masts, twin screw and a speed of 16 knots. There was accommodation for 240-1st, 220-2nd and 1,000-3rd class passengers. Launched on 17/1/1900, she sailed from Liverpool on her maiden voyage to Halifax and Portland on 5/4/1900. She commenced her first voyage Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal on 10/5/1900. In Jan.1907 she was chartered to Canadian Pacific who used her for four round voyages Liverpool - St John, New Brunswick. On 4/9/1914 she commenced her last voyage Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal for the Allan Line, and was used as a troopship for the Canadian Expeditionary Force on the homeward leg. Between Nov.1914 and Feb.1915 she was used as an accommodation ship for German prisoners at Ryde, Isle of Wight and in 1915 made several trooping voyages to Bombay and Gallipoli. In 1917 she was returned to the Allan Line, who by then had been taken over by Canadian Pacific and on 12/11/1918 commenced her first peacetime voyage from London to St John, New Brunswick. On 23/12/1918 she sailed on her first Liverpool - St John, New Brunswick. voyage and on 23/9/1919 her first London - Quebec - Montreal run. Between May 1920 and March 1921 she was converted from coal to oil fuel and her accommodation altered to carry 310-cabin and 736-3rd class passengers. On 6/4/1921 she sailed on her first Glasgow - St. John, New Brunswick voyage and on 2/3/1922 was renamed "Marburn". On 17/11/1922 she commenced her first Liverpool - St. John, New Brunswick voyage, on 2/3/1923 her first Glasgow - St. John, New Brunswick and on 13/12/1924 her first Antwerp - St. John, New Brunswick voyage. Subsequently she ran between Hamburg, Glasgow, Antwerp or London to St. John, New Brunswick or Montreal - Quebec. She commenced her final voyage between Antwerp - Southampton - St. John, New Brunswick on 6/4/1928 and was then laid up at Southampton. Later the same year, she was scrapped at Genoa.
 

SS Tunisian.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.

 

U -


Umbria
The "Umbria" was a 7,718 gross ton ship, built for Cunard SS Co in 1884 by John Elder & Co, Glasgow. Her details were - length 501.6ft x beam 57.2ft, two funnels, three masts (rigged for sail), single screw and a speed of 19 knots. There was accommodation for 550-1st and 800-3rd class passengers. Launched on 26/06/1884 and sailed on her maiden voyage between Liverpool, Queenstown (Cobh) and New York on 01/11/1884. In 1887 or earlier she had accommodation for 160-intermediate passengers added, and in May 1887 made a record passage of 6 days, 4 hours, 12 mins between Queenstown and Sandy Hook. In 1890 she was rebuilt to 8,128 gross tons and on 31/12/1892 arrived at New York with a broken shaft. She sailed New York - Liverpool without passengers for permanent repairs and resumed Liverpool - New York sailings on 01/04/1893. In January 1900 she made two voyages as a Boer War transport and recommenced Liverpool - Queenstown - New York voyages on 21/07/1900. Her last sailing on this service started 12/02/1910 and she was scrapped the same year.

 

SS Umbria.  Courtesy Simplon Postcards www.simplonpc.co.uk.

 

Ultonia
845 gross ton ship, length 500ft x beam 57.4ft, one funnel, four masts, twin screw and a speed of 13 knots. Built by C.S. Swan & Hunter, Wallsend-on-Tyne (engines by Sir C. Furness, Westgarth & Co, Middlesborough) as a cargo steamer for the Cunard Steamship Co, she was launched on 4/06/1898. On 28/10/1898 she underwent trials and then sailed from the Tyne for Boston. Fitted with accommodation for 675-3rd class passengers in 1899, she started her first passenger voyage on 28/02/1899 when she left Liverpool for Queenstown (Cobh) and Boston. Her last voyage on this service started on 9/02/1904 and she was then rebuilt to 10,402 gross tons with accommodation for 120-2nd and 2,100-3rd class passengers. On 29/04/1904 she started sailings from Trieste to Fiume, Naples and New York and commenced her last voyage on this route on 31/10/1911. Her first Southampton - Quebec - Montreal voyage started on 23/04/1912, and her last on 5/11/1912. On 7/12/1912 she resumed New York - Trieste sailings and started her final voyage from Trieste to Fiume, Naples and New York on 28/06/1914. Between 1915-1916 she made several voyages between New York and St.Nazaire and on 27/06/1917 was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U.53 while 190 miles from Fastnet with the loss of one life.
 

SS Ultonia. Courtesy Jeff Newman web.greatships.net:81/.

 

V -
 

Vancouver
The "Vancouver" was built by C.Connell & Co, Glasgow in 1884 for the Dominion Line. Her details were - 5,141 gross tons, length 430.6ft x beam 45ft, two funnels, four masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 14 knots. There was accommodation for 200-cabin class, 120-intermediate and 1,500-3rd class passengers. Launched on 12/3/1884, she commenced her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Quebec and Montreal on 19/6/1894. On 28/12/1886 she was chartered to Inman Line and completed two voyages between Liverpool, Queenstown (Cobh) and New York. In August 1890 she sustained slight damage in collision with an iceberg in fog near Belle Isle. In November 1890 her commander and a quartermaster were swept overboard and drowned. In 1892 she was rebuilt with triple expansion engines and only one funnel, and in November 1894 she stranded at the entrance to Lough Foyle and was towed to Liverpool. In August 1896 she was in collision with the Beaver Line's "Lake Ontario" in the St Lawrence River and both ships sustained damage. On 29/3/1902 she sailed from Liverpool for Naples and on 10/4/1902 commenced her first Naples - Boston sailing. She commenced her last Boston - Genoa - Naples voyage on 21/11/1903 and resumed Liverpool - Quebec - Montreal voyages in May 1904. Her accommodation was altered to carry 300-2nd and 1,500-3rd class passengers and she commenced her final voyage on 27/3/1909 when she left Portland for Liverpool. In 1910 she was scrapped.

 

SS Vancouver.  Courtesy The ShipsList  www.theshipslist.com..

 

W -
 

Western World
13,712 gross tons, length 517ft x beam 72.2ft, twin screw, speed 18.5 knots, accommodation for 260-1st and 300-3rd class passengers. Built 1922 by Bethlehem SB Corp., Sparrows Point, Md as the "Nutmeg State" for the U.S. Shipping Board. Baltimore. 1922 renamed "Western World", used on the New York - River Plate service and managed by Munson Line. 1926 sold to Munson Line, New York. August 1931 stranded near Santos, Brazil and passengers taken off by Hamburg America Line's General Osorio. She was refloated four weeks later and repaired. In 1938 the U.S. Maritime Commission took over Munson Line's fleet as the company was in financial difficulty. In 1939 the ship was taken over by the U.S. Army and converted to the transport "Leonard Wood". 1941 transferred to U.S. Navy. 1946 returned to U.S. Army, then to U.S. Maritime Commission for disposal and laid up. 1948 scrapped at Vancouver, Wash.

 

SS Leonard Wood aka Western World.  U.S. Library of Congress.

 


 

Notes

 

This list consists of descriptions of Doukhobor immigrant ships, which I have compiled over the course of several years from a variety of sources. While I have checked this information against my sources, much of it is derived from secondary works which may themselves contain errors. I welcome any corrections and additions to these accounts.

 

Doukhobors gather for mealtime aboard the SS Lake Huron en route to Canada, 1899.

Library & Archives Canada C-005628.

 

Ship Names

 

It is usually not possible to identify a ship positively by its name alone. Very few names given to ships in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were unique. Indeed, names with nautical references, names of ports, names of national symbols or rulers, names of famous people, and common given names were frequently given to merchant vessels. As a result there have at any given time been any number of ships named "Lake Superior", "America", "Bremen", "Californian", "Vancouver", etc.  At the same time, ships often changed hands and names many times. As a result, there may be any given number of names for a single ship over the course of its service life.

 

Terminology and Abbreviations

  • Beam. The width of a ship.  

  • First Class. The most expensive passenger accommodations on a ship.

  • Funnel. A smokestack of a vessel.  Note each shipping line retained its own distinctive funnel colours.

  • Laid up. A ship put in dock, as for repairs; a ship not in active service; a ship which is out of commission for fitting out, awaiting better markets, needing repair work, etc.

  • Launch. To place a ship in water for the first time at the shipyard.

  • Line. A shipping company.

  • Mast. A large long spar, placed nearly vertical on the center line of a ship.

  • Scrap. To salvage and dismantle a ship.

  • Screw. A ship's propeller.

  • Second Class. A caliber of accommodations on a passenger ship, less roomy and elaborate than first class. Also referred to as "cabin class".

  • SS. Abbreviation for Steam Ship.

  • Third Class. Accommodations on a passenger ship, that are of the third and usually lowest order of luxury and price. Also referred to as "steerage class". With few exceptions, the Doukhobors sailed to Canada in steerage class. The term "steerage" was synonymous with the hardships of trans-Atlantic emigration as passengers were packed into dangerous quarters and each was allotted a small berth that served as bed and storage place. It was the only class most Doukhobor emigrants could afford and was literally next to the ship’s steering equipment, below the water line. It was not uncommon for ships to carry steerage class passengers outward bound and be converted to carry cattle on the homeward passage.

View of Gibraltar from the SS Lake Huron, the ship bringing the first group of Doukhobors to

Canada, 1899.  Library & Archives Canada PA-022228.

 

Doukhobor Voyages

 

For a comprehensive listing of Doukhobor passenger voyages in the above-noted ships, visit the Index to Doukhobor Ship Passenger Lists. This listing contains the ship name, line, port of departure, date of departure, port of arrival, date of arrival, and number of passengers for over 95 Doukhobor immigrant ship voyages from Russia to Canada between 1898 and 1932.  Also included are microfilm reel numbers and links to online images of the original ship passenger manifests.   

 

Ship Pictures

 

Whenever possible I have included a pictorial representation of the ship in question. To conserve space, these pictures are presented in small format, generally no more than 450 pixels wide. These pictures are reproduced here by permission from a variety of sources.  If you wish to use or obtain copies for your personal use, please contact the copyright holder (see photo caption) of the original picture for permission to do so.  

 

Prints of the the SS Lake Superior and the SS Lake Huron, which brought over 7,500 Doukhobor immigrants to Canada from Russia in 5 trans-Atlantic voyages between 1898 and 1899, are available from Castlegar-area Doukhobor artist John Kalmakov. His colourized photo-illustrations of these ships are adapted from authentic maritime photographs, which are quite likely the best, and most likely the only remaining full-profile photographs of the ships. To order copies and for more information, visit John's website, Doukhobor Prints

 


 

Bibliography