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Index of Russian Date and Calendar Terms

 

In order to find and use specific types of Russian records, researchers need to be able to identify and understand some key terms in the Russian language. The following index contains terms relating to time, dates and calendars transliterated from Russian (left column) and their English translations (right column). The terms included here are those that you are likely to find in Russian genealogical sources. If the term you are looking for is not on this list, please consult a Russian-English dictionary. Compiled by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff.

 

Index -- Units of Time - Time of Day - Days - Months - Seasons - Old/New Calendar - Other Terms

 


 

Units of Time

 

Sekunda

second

Minuta

minute

Chas

hour

Den’

day

Nedelya

week

Mesyats

month

God

year

Leto

year

Desyatok

decade

Vek

century; generation

Stoletie

century

 


 

Time of Day

 

Den’

day; afternoon

Noch’

night

Polden’

noon; midday

Polnoch’

midnight

Utro

morning; forenoon

Vecher

evening

 


 

Days of the Week

 

Ponedel’nik

Monday

Vtornik

Tuesday

Sreda

Wednesday

Chetverg

Thursday

Pyatnitsa

Friday

Subbota

Saturday

Voskresen’e

Sunday

 


 

Months of the Year

 

Yanvar’

January

Fevral’

February

Mart

March

Aprel’

April

Mai

May

Iyun’

June

Iyul’

July

Avgust

August

Sentyabr’

September

Oktyabr’

October

Noyabr’

November

Dekabr’

December

 


 

Seasons

 

Vesna

spring

Leto

summer

Osen’

autumn

Zima

winter

 


 

Old/New Calendar

 

Imperial Russia operated on the ‘old-style’ Julian calendar (staryi stil'), which was in common use in Europe after it was authorized by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C.  However, after 1582, most Western European countries adopted the ‘new-style’ Gregorian calendar (novyi stil') proclaimed by Pope Gregory XIII, which abolished the leap year for centenary years not exactly divisible by 400. By the 19th century, the old-style calendar was 12 days behind the new-style calendar (13 days behind in a leap-year). In February 1918, the Soviet Union adopted the new-style calendar; however, the Russian Orthodox Church still used the old-style calendar. In the calculation of any historical dates, therefore, one must take into account whether the old-style or new-style calendar was in use.

 


 

Other Russian Terms


 

Bibliography

  • Dal, V.I. Tolkovyi Slovar Zhivogo Velikorusskago Iazyka. (Moscow, 1999).

  • Kroutikhin, Mikhail I. Correspondence to the author re: Russian genealogical terms. September, 2006.

  • Mueller, V.K. English-Russian Dictionary. 24th Ed. (Moscow, 1995).

  • Pushkarev, Sergei G. Dictionary of Russian Historical Terms from the Eleventh Century to 1917 (Yale, 1970).