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Index of Imperial Russian Occupational Terms

 

In order to find and use specific types of Russian records, researchers need to be able to identify and understand some key terms in the Russian language. The following index contains terms relating to occupations, trades and professions in Imperial Russia transliterated from Russian (left column) and their English translations (right column). The terms included here are those that you are likely to find in Russian genealogical sources. If the term you are looking for is not on this list, please consult a Russian-English dictionary. Compiled by Jonathan J. Kalmakoff.

 

Index -- A - B - Ch - D - E - F - G - I - K - L - M - N - O - P - R - S - T - U - V - Y - Z - Other Terms

 


 

A

Advokat

lawyer

Argat

(archaic) seasonal labourer

Arkhimandrit

Archimandrite; head of a prominent monastery

Ataman

Cossack military commander

B

Bannik

(archaic) bathhouse attendant

Barabanshchik

(archaic) drummer

Bobrovnik

(archaic) beaver hunter

Bochkar

cooper

Bondar

cooper

Botsman

boatswain

Brazhnik

(archaic) brewer; drunkard

Bronnik

(archaic) armourer

Burlak

barge-hauler

Ch

Chasovshchik

watchmaker

Chelets

(archaic) monk

Chenets

monk

Cherepan

(archaic) potter

Chernets

monk

Chernorabochii

labourer

D

D’yachikha

church-reader’s wife

D’yachok

reader (in church)

D’yak

scribe; clerk

D’yakon

deacon

Denshchik

(archaic) batman; officer’s servant

Doyarka

milkmaid

Drapirovshchik

draper

Dudar’

(archaic) piper

Dudochnik

(archaic) piper

Dudolad

(archaic) piper

E

Ekspert

assessor

Esaul

Cossack captain

F
Feldsher hospital assistant

Fermer

farmer

G

Glashatai

bellman

Golovshchik

choir-master in a monastery

Gonchar

potter

Gonets

(archaic) messenger; courier

Gorshenya

(archaic) potter

Grebshchik

(archaic) raker

Gvozdar’

(archaic) nailer; smith working with nails

I

Igumen

abbot

Ikonnik

(archaic) icon-painter

Ikonopisets

icon-painter

Izvozchik

carrier; drayman

K

Kalashnik

baker

Kamenshchik

mason

Kanatchik

(archaic) rope-maker

Kapitan

captain

Kapral

corporal

Karetnik

cartwright

Kelar

cellarer

Khlebnik

baker

Khodatay

solicitor

Khozyain

proprietor; master

Klyuchar’

(archaic) sexton

Klyuchnik

housekeeper; key-keeper

Kochegar

(archaic) stoker

Kolesnik

wheelwright

Kologriv

(archaic) horse-groom

Komendant

commandant

Konoval

horse-doctor

Konovalikha

wife of a horse-doctor

Kontorshchik

(archaic) clerk

Korabel’nik

(archaic) ship-attendant; sailor

Korabel’shchik

(archaic) owner of a trading vessel

Korchmar’

inn-keeper

Kormilitsa

wet-nurse

Kosar’

mower; reaper

Kosarikha

wife of a mower

Kostar’

(archaic) dice-player

Kotel’nik

brazier

Koval

(archaic) blacksmith

Kovalikha

wife of a blacksmith

Kozhemyaka

(archaic) tanner

Kozhevnik

(archaic) tanner

Krasil’nik

dyer

Krasil’shchik

dyer

Kravets

(archaic) tailor

Kukhar’

(archaic) cook

Kukharka

cook (female)

Kukol’nik

(archaic) puppeteer

Kur’yer

courier

Kuznets

blacksmith

L

Lesnik

forester

Lesorub

tree-feller

Lodochnik

(archaic) boat-owner; oarsman

Lotochnik

hawker

Lovets

huntsman

Luchnik

bowyer; bowman

M

Major

major

Makler

broker; middleman

Maslennik

dealer in butter or oil

Masloboyka

(archaic) butter-maker

Matros

sailor

Mednik

(archaic) copper-smith

Medovar

(archaic) mead-brewer

Medsestra

nurse

Medvedchik

(archaic) bear-hunter

Medvednik

(archaic) bear-hunter

Medvezhatnik

bear-hunter; safe box breaker (thief)

Mel’nik

miller

Metel’nik

(archaic) sweeper

Miroshnik

miller

Mogil’shchik

gravedigger

Molochnik

milkman

Monach

monk

Mukosei

(archaic) flour-sifter

Musorshchik

dustman

Myasnik

butcher

N

Naboyshchik

(archaic) cloth-printer

Nevodchik

(archaic) fishing net-maker

Nishchii

beggar

Nyanya

nursemaid

O

Ofitser

officer

Okhotnik

hunter; fowler

Okhrannik

guard

Otkupshchik

(archaic) tax-farmer

Otstavnoi Soldat

discharged soldier

Ovchar

(archaic) sheep-breeder; shepherd

P

Pakhar’

plowman

Pasechnik

beekeeper

Pastukh

shepherd

Pekar’

baker

Perepletchik

book-binder

Perevodchik

translator

Perevozchik

carrier; ferryman

Pesennik

(archaic) singer

Pevets

singer

Pil’shchik

(archaic) sawyer

Pisar

scribe; clerk

Pischik

(archaic) scribe; clerk

Pisets

(archaic) scribe; clerk

Pivovar

brewer

Plavil’shchik

founder; smelter

Plotnik

carpenter

Pluzhnik

(archaic) plow-maker

Pobirokha

(archaic) beggar

Pochtal’on

postman

Pochtar

(archaic) postman; messenger

Podkovalnik

horse-shoer

Podomar

(archaic) sexton

Pomeshchik

(archaic) estate-owner

Ponomar

sexton

Pop

priest

Popadya

priest’s wife

Portnoy

tailor

Povar

cook

Povarikha

cook (female)

Prepodavatel’

teacher

Protod’yakon

archdeacon

Protopop

archpriest

Psalomshchik

Psalm-reader (in church)

Pushechnik

(archaic) gunner

Pushkar

gunner

R

Rabochii

worker

Raspop

(archaic) unfrocked priest

Ratay

(archaic) soldier

Ratnik

(archaic) soldier

Razd’yakon

(archaic) unfrocked deacon

Raznoschik

(archaic) peddler

Remeslennik

tinker

Reshetnik

(archaic) sieve-maker

Rezchik

carver; engraver

Rezets

cutter

Reznik

(archaic) butcher

Rostovshchik

userer

Rudomet

(archaic) blood-letter

Rudometchik

(archaic) blood-letter

Rudometka

(archaic) blood-letter (female)

Rukavichnik

(archaic) glover

Ryadovoi

private; common soldier

Rybachka

fishwife

Rybak; Rybaka

fisherman

Rybolov

angler

S

Sadovnik

gardener

Sannik

(archaic) sledge-maker

Sapozhnik

cobbler; shoemaker; hatter

Serebrennik

(archaic) silversmith

Serebryak

(archaic) silversmith

Serzhant

sergeant

Shakhter

miner

Shapoval

(archaic) hat-maker; fuller

Shchetinnik

(archaic) dealer in bristle

Sherstobit

(archaic) fuller

Sherstoboy

(archaic) fuller

Shpyn

(archaic) blind beggar

Shveitsar

doorman; usher

Shvets

(archaic) tailor; shoemaker

Shveya

seamstress

Sinil’nik

(archaic) dyer

Skornyak

furrier

Skorokhod

runner

Smolyak

(archaic) tar-sprayer

Sobakar’

(archaic) dog-breeder

Sobol’shchik

(archaic) sable-hunter

Sokol’nik

(archaic) falconer

Soldat

soldier

Soldat

soldier

Soldatka

soldier’s wife

Solevar

(archaic) salt-worker

Solodovnik

(archaic) malt-dealer

Soshnik

(archaic) plow-maker

Sotnik

Cossack captain

Starshina

village or district administrator in Imperial Russia

Stolyar

joiner

Storozh

(archaic) guard; watchman

Strelets

musketeer

Strugovshchik

(archaic) boatman; ship-owner; ship-worker

Sudeyka

(archaic) judge

Sudomontazhnik

shipwright

Sukach

(archaic) twister (weaver)

Svinar’

(archaic) swineherd

Svinopas

swineherd

Svinukh

(archaic) swineherd

Syrovar

(archaic) cheese-monger

T

Tabachnik

(archaic) tobacco-grower

Telezhnik

wagonwright

Titar

(archaic) church-warden

Tkach

weaver

Tokar’

turner

Tolmach

(archaic) translator

Torgash

shopkeeper

Torgovets

shopkeeper

Torgovka

(archaic) market-woman

Trepach’

(archaic) fuller; scutcher

Trubach

trumpeter

Tyuremshchik

jailor

U

Ulan

lancer

V

Vinokur

(archaic) distiller

Voditel’

teamster

Vozchik

cabman; carrier; drayman

Voznitsa

driver; coachman

Y

Yamshchik

coachman

Yaryga

(archaic) servant; attendant

Z

Zavodchik

mill-owner; factory-owner

Zerenshchik

(archaic) dice-player

Zhestyanshchik

tinsmith

Zhivopisets

painter

Znamenshchik

standard-bearer; painter

Zolnik

(archaic) ashman

Zolotar

goldsmith; gilder

Zvonar

bell-ringer

 


 

Other Russian Terms


 

Bibliography

  • Dal, V.I. Tolkovyi Slovar Zhivogo Velikorusskago Iazyka. (Moscow, 1999).

  • Kroutikhin, Mikhail I. Correspondence to the author re: Russian genealogical terms. September, 2006.

  • Mueller, V.K. English-Russian Dictionary. 24th Ed. (Moscow, 1995).

  • Pushkarev, Sergei G. Dictionary of Russian Historical Terms from the Eleventh Century to 1917 (Yale, 1970).